Translates AIPS-convention celestial projection types, -NCP and -GLS.
Returns 0 for success; -1 if no change required.
Fixes WCS keyvalues for malformed cylindrical projections.
Returns 0 for success; -1 if no change required.
Translates the old DATE-OBS date format to year-2000 standard form (yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm:ss) and derives MJD-OBS from it if not already set. Alternatively, if mjdobs is set and dateobs isn’t, then datfix derives dateobs from it. If both are set but disagree by more than half a day then ValueError is raised.
Returns 0 for success; -1 if no change required.
Applies all of the corrections handled separately by datfix, unitfix, celfix, spcfix and cylfix.
translate_units: string. Do potentially unsafe translations of non-standard unit strings.
Although "S" is commonly used to represent seconds, its translation to "s" is potentially unsafe since the standard recognizes "S" formally as Siemens, however rarely that may be used. The same applies to "H" for hours (Henry), and "D" for days (Debye).
This string controls what to do in such cases, and is case-insensitive.
If the string contains "s", translate "S" to "s".
If the string contains "h", translate "H" to "h".
If the string contains "d", translate "D" to "d".
Thus '' doesn’t do any unsafe translations, whereas 'shd' does all of them.
naxis: int array[naxis]. Image axis lengths. If this array is set to zero or None, then cylfix will not be invoked.
Returns a dictionary containing the following keys, each referring to a status string for each of the sub-fix functions that were called:
Coordinate increments (CDELTia) for each coord axis.
Returns the CDELT offsets in read-only form. Unlike the cdelt property, this works even when the header specifies the linear transformation matrix in one of the alternative CDi_ja or CROTAia forms. This is useful when you want access to the linear transformation matrix, but don’t care how it was specified in the header.
Returns the PC matrix in read-only form. Unlike the pc property, this works even when the header specifies the linear transformation matrix in one of the alternative CDi_ja or CROTAia forms. This is useful when you want access to the linear transformation matrix, but don’t care how it was specified in the header.
Returns PSi_ma keywords for each i and m. Returned as a list of tuples of the form (i, m, value):
- i: int. Axis number, as in PSi_ma, (i.e. 1-relative)
- m: int. Parameter number, as in PSi_ma, (i.e. 0-relative)
- value: string. Parameter value.
See also
Returns PVi_ma keywords for each i and m. Returned as a list of tuples of the form (i, m, value):
- i: int. Axis number, as in PVi_ma, (i.e. 1-relative)
- m: int. Parameter number, as in PVi_ma, (i.e. 0-relative)
- value: string. Parameter value.
Note that, if they were not given, set resets the entries for PVi_1a, PVi_2a, PVi_3a, and PVi_4a for longitude axis i to match (phi_0, theta_0), the native longitude and latitude of the reference point given by LONPOLEa and LATPOLEa.
See also
Returns True if CDi_ja is present. CDi_ja is an alternate specification of the linear transformation matrix, maintained for historical compatibility.
Matrix elements in the IRAF convention are equivalent to the product CDi_ja = CDELTia * PCi_ja, but the defaults differ from that of the PCi_ja matrix. If one or more CDi_ja keywords are present then all unspecified CDi_ja default to zero. If no CDi_ja (or CROTAia) keywords are present, then the header is assumed to be in PCi_ja form whether or not any PCi_ja keywords are present since this results in an interpretation of CDELTia consistent with the original FITS specification.
While CDi_ja may not formally co-exist with PCi_ja, it may co-exist with CDELTia and CROTAia which are to be ignored.
See also
Alias for has_cd. Maintained for backward compatibility. string
The name given to the coordinate representation WCSNAMEa.
Returns True if CROTAia is present. CROTAia is an alternate specification of the linear transformation matrix, maintained for historical compatibility.
In the AIPS convention, CROTAia may only be associated with the latitude axis of a celestial axis pair. It specifies a rotation in the image plane that is applied after the CDELTia; any other CROTAia keywords are ignored.
CROTAia may not formally co-exist with PCi_ja. CROTAia and CDELTia may formally co-exist with CDi_ja but if so are to be ignored.
See also
Returns True if PCi_ja is present. PCi_ja is the recommended way to specify the linear transformation matrix.
See also
Alias for has_pc. Maintained for backward compatibility. str
Character code for alternate coordinate descriptions. For example, the "a" in keyword names such as CTYPEia. This is a space character for the primary coordinate description, or one of the 26 upper-case letters, A-Z.
Given either the celestial longitude or latitude plus an element of the pixel coordinate, solves for the remaining elements by iterating on the unknown celestial coordinate element using s2p.
Returns dictionary with the following keys:
Exceptions:
Note
Initially, the specified solution interval is checked to see if it’s a “crossing” interval. If it isn’t, a search is made for a crossing solution by iterating on the unknown celestial coordinate starting at the upper limit of the solution interval and decrementing by the specified step size. A crossing is indicated if the trial value of the pixel coordinate steps through the value specified. If a crossing interval is found then the solution is determined by a modified form of “regula falsi” division of the crossing interval. If no crossing interval was found within the specified solution interval then a search is made for a “non-crossing” solution as may arise from a point of tangency. The process is complicated by having to make allowance for the discontinuities that occur in all map projections.
Once one solution has been determined others may be found by subsequent invocations of mix with suitably restricted solution intervals.
Note the circumstance that arises when the solution point lies at a native pole of a projection in which the pole is represented as a finite curve, for example the zenithals and conics. In such cases two or more valid solutions may exist but mix only ever returns one.
Because of its generality, mix is very compute-intensive. For compute-limited applications, more efficient special-case solvers could be written for simple projections, for example non-oblique cylindrical projections.
Converts pixel to sky coordinates.
Returns a dictionary with the following keys:
Exceptions:
Print the contents of the Wcsprm object to stdout. Probably only useful for debugging purposes, and may be removed in the future.
To get a string of the contents, use repr.
Transforms sky coordinates to pixel coordinates.
Returns a dictionary with the following keys:
Exceptions:
Sets up a WCS object for use according to information supplied within it.
Note that this routine need not be called directly; it will be invoked by p2s and s2p if necessary.
Some attributes that are based on other attributes (such as lattyp on ctype) may not be correct until after set is called.
set strips off trailing blanks in all string members.
set recognizes the NCP projection and converts it to the equivalent SIN projection and it also recognizes GLS as a synonym for SFL. It does alias translation for the AIPS spectral types (FREQ-LSR, FELO-HEL, etc.) but without changing the input header keywords.
Exceptions:
Sets PSi_ma keywords for each i and m. The input must be a sequence of tuples of the form (i, m, value):
- i: int. Axis number, as in PSi_ma, (i.e. 1-relative)
- m: int. Parameter number, as in PSi_ma, (i.e. 0-relative)
- value: string. Parameter value.
See also
Sets PVi_ma keywords for each i and m. The input must be a sequence of tuples of the form (i, m, value):
- i: int. Axis number, as in PVi_ma, (i.e. 1-relative)
- m: int. Parameter number, as in PVi_ma, (i.e. 0-relative)
- value: float. Parameter value.
See also
Translates AIPS-convention spectral coordinate types. {FREQ, VELO, FELO}-{OBS, HEL, LSR} (e.g. FREQ-LSR, VELO-OBS, FELO-HEL)
Returns 0 for success; -1 if no change required.
Translates the spectral axis in a WCS object. For example, a FREQ axis may be translated into ZOPT-F2W and vice versa.
Exceptions:
Extracts the coordinate description for a subimage from a WCS object.
The world coordinate system of the subimage must be separable in the sense that the world coordinates at any point in the subimage must depend only on the pixel coordinates of the axes extracted. In practice, this means that the PCi_ja matrix of the original image must not contain non-zero off-diagonal terms that associate any of the subimage axes with any of the non-subimage axes.
sub can also add axes to a wcsprm struct. The new axes will be created using the defaults set by the Wcsprm constructor which produce a simple, unnamed, linear axis with world coordinates equal to the pixel coordinate. These default values can be changed before invoking set.
No checks are performed to verify that the coordinate axes are consistent, that is done by set.
Coordinate axes types may be specified using either strings or special integer constants. The available types are:
- 'longitude' / WCSSUB_LONGITUDE: Celestial longitude
- 'latitude' / WCSSUB_LATITUDE: Celestial latitude
- 'cubeface' / WCSSUB_CUBEFACE: Quadcube CUBEFACE axis
- 'spectral' / WCSSUB_SPECTRAL: Spectral axis
- 'stokes' / WCSSUB_STOKES: Stokes axis
- 'celestial' / WCSSUB_CELESTIAL: An alias for the combination of 'longitude', 'latitude' and 'cubeface'.
Returns a WCS object, which is a deep copy of the original object.
Exceptions:
Note
Combinations of subimage axes of particular types may be extracted in the same order as they occur in the input image by combining the integer constants with the ‘binary or’ (|) operator. For example:
wcs.sub([WCSSUB_LONGITUDE | WCSSUB_LATITUDE | WCSSUB_SPECTRAL])
would extract the longitude, latitude, and spectral axes in the same order as the input image. If one of each were present, the resulting object would have three dimensions.
For convenience, WCSSUB_CELESTIAL is defined as the combination WCSSUB_LONGITUDE | WCSSUB_LATITUDE | WCSSUB_CUBEFACE.
The codes may also be negated to extract all but the types specified, for example:
wcs.sub([
WCSSUB_LONGITUDE,
WCSSUB_LATITUDE,
WCSSUB_CUBEFACE,
-(WCSSUB_SPECTRAL | WCSSUB_STOKES)])
The last of these specifies all axis types other than spectral or Stokes. Extraction is done in the order specified by axes, i.e. a longitude axis (if present) would be extracted first (via axes[0]) and not subsequently (via axes[3]). Likewise for the latitude and cubeface axes in this example.
The number of dimensions in the returned object may be less than or greater than the length of axes. However, it will never exceed the number of axes in the input image.
to_header translates a WCS object into a FITS header.
The output header will almost certainly differ from the input in a number of respects:
- The output header only contains WCS-related keywords. In particular, it does not contain syntactically-required keywords such as SIMPLE, NAXIS, BITPIX, or END.
- Deprecated (e.g. CROTAn) or non-standard usage will be translated to standard (this is partially dependent on whether fix was applied).
- Quantities will be converted to the units used internally, basically SI with the addition of degrees.
- Floating-point quantities may be given to a different decimal precision.
- Elements of the PCi_j matrix will be written if and only if they differ from the unit matrix. Thus, if the matrix is unity then no elements will be written.
- Additional keywords such as WCSAXES, CUNITia, LONPOLEa and LATPOLEa may appear.
- The original keycomments will be lost, although to_header tries hard to write meaningful comments.
- Keyword order may be changed.
Keywords can be translated between the image array, binary table, and pixel lists forms by manipulating the colnum or colax members of the WCS object.
relax: Degree of permissiveness:
- False: Recognize only FITS keywords defined by the published WCS standard.
- True: Admit all recognized informal extensions of the WCS standard.
- int: a bit field selecting specific extensions to write. See Header-writing relaxation constants for details.
Returns a raw FITS header as a string.
Translates non-standard CUNITia keyvalues. For example, DEG -> deg, also stripping off unnecessary whitespace.
translate_units: string. Do potentially unsafe translations of non-standard unit strings.
Although "S" is commonly used to represent seconds, its recognizes "S" formally as Siemens, however rarely that may be translation to "s" is potentially unsafe since the standard used. The same applies to "H" for hours (Henry), and "D" for days (Debye).
This string controls what to do in such cases, and is case-insensitive.
Thus '' doesn’t do any unsafe translations, whereas 'shd' does all of them.
See FITS unit specification for more information.
Returns 0 for success; -1 if no change required.
str
Character code for alternate coordinate descriptions. For example, the "a" in keyword names such as CTYPEia. This is a space character for the primary coordinate description, or one of the 26 upper-case letters, A-Z.
int array[naxis]
An array of four-digit type codes for each axis.
CTYPEia in "4-3" form with unrecognized algorithm code will have its type set to -1 and generate an error.
double array[naxis][naxis]
The CDi_ja linear transformation matrix.
For historical compatibility, three alternate specifications of the linear transforations are available in wcslib. The canonical PCi_ja with CDELTia, CDi_ja, and the deprecated CROTAia keywords. Although the latter may not formally co-exist with PCi_ja, the approach here is simply to ignore them if given in conjunction with PCi_ja.
has_pc, has_cd and has_crota can be used to determine which of these alternatives are present in the header.
These alternate specifications of the linear transformation matrix are translated immediately to PCi_ja by set and are nowhere visible to the lower-level routines. In particular, set resets cdelt to unity if CDi_ja is present (and no PCi_ja). If no CROTAia is associated with the latitude axis, set reverts to a unity PCi_ja matrix.
double array[naxis]
Coordinate increments (CDELTia) for each coord axis.
If a CDi_ja linear transformation matrix is present, a warning is raised and cdelt is ignored. The CDi_ja matrix may be deleted by:
del wcs.wcs.cd
An undefined value is represented by NaN.
boolean
If True, an offset will be applied to (x, y) to force (x,y) = (0,0) at the fiducial point, (phi_0, theta_0). Default is False.
list of strings
A list of the coordinate axis names, from CNAMEia.
int array[naxis]
An array recording the column numbers for each axis in a pixel list.
int
Where the coordinate representation is associated with an image-array column in a FITS binary table, this property may be used to record the relevant column number.
It should be set to zero for an image header or pixel list.
double array[naxis]
The random error in each coordinate axis, CRDERia.
An undefined value is represented by NaN.
double array[naxis]
CROTAia keyvalues for each coordinate axis.
For historical compatibility, three alternate specifications of the linear transforations are available in wcslib. The canonical PCi_ja with CDELTia, CDi_ja, and the deprecated CROTAia keywords. Although the latter may not formally co-exist with PCi_ja, the approach here is simply to ignore them if given in conjunction with PCi_ja.
has_pc, has_cd and has_crota can be used to determine which of these alternatives are present in the header.
These alternate specifications of the linear transformation matrix are translated immediately to PCi_ja by set and are nowhere visible to the lower-level routines. In particular, set resets cdelt to unity if CDi_ja is present (and no PCi_ja). If no CROTAia is associated with the latitude axis, set reverts to a unity PCi_ja matrix.
double array[naxis]
Coordinate reference pixels (CRPIXja) for each pixel axis.
double array[naxis]
Coordinate reference values (CRVALia) for each coordinate axis.
double array[naxis]
The systematic error in the coordinate value axes, CSYERia.
An undefined value is represented by NaN.
list of strings[naxis]
List of CTYPEia keyvalues.
The ctype keyword values must be in upper case and there must be zero or one pair of matched celestial axis types, and zero or one spectral axis.
int
Index into the pixcrd (pixel coordinate) array for the CUBEFACE axis. This is used for quadcube projections where the cube faces are stored on a separate axis.
The quadcube projections (TSC, CSC, QSC) may be represented in FITS in either of two ways:
The six faces may be laid out in one plane and numbered as follows:
0 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 5Faces 2, 3 and 4 may appear on one side or the other (or both). The sky-to-pixel routines map faces 2, 3 and 4 to the left but the pixel-to-sky routines accept them on either side.
The COBE convention in which the six faces are stored in a three-dimensional structure using a CUBEFACE axis indexed from 0 to 5 as above.
These routines support both methods; set determines which is being used by the presence or absence of a CUBEFACE axis in ctype. p2s and s2p translate the CUBEFACE axis representation to the single plane representation understood by the lower-level projection routines.
list of strings[naxis]
List of CUNITia keyvalues which define the units of measurement of the CRVALia, CDELTia and CDi_ja keywords.
As CUNITia is an optional header keyword, cunit may be left blank but otherwise is expected to contain a standard units specification as defined by WCS Paper I. unitfix is available to translate commonly used non-standard units specifications but this must be done as a separate step before invoking set.
For celestial axes, if cunit is not blank, set uses wcsunits to parse it and scale cdelt, crval, and cd to decimal degrees. It then resets cunit to "deg".
For spectral axes, if cunit is not blank, set uses wcsunits to parse it and scale cdelt, crval, and cd to SI units. It then resets cunit accordingly.
set ignores cunit for other coordinate types; cunit may be used to label coordinate values.
string
Representative mid-point of the date of observation in ISO format, yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm:ss.
See also
string
Start of the date of observation in ISO format, yyyy-mm-ddThh:mm:ss.
See also
double
The equinox associated with dynamical equatorial or ecliptic coordinate systems, EQUINOXa (or EPOCH in older headers). Not applicable to ICRS equatorial or ecliptic coordinates.
An undefined value is represented by NaN.
double array[2][2] (read-only)
Inverse of the matrix containing the product of the CDELTia diagonal matrix and the PCi_ja matrix.
int (read-only)
The index into the sky coordinate array containing latitude values.
double
The native latitude of the celestial pole, LATPOLEa (deg).
string (read-only)
Celestial axis type for latitude, e.g. “RA”, “DEC”, “GLON”, “GLAT”, etc. extracted from ‘RA–’, ‘DEC-‘, ‘GLON’, ‘GLAT’, etc. in the first four characters of CTYPEia but with trailing dashes removed.
int (read-only)
The index into the sky coordinate array containing longitude values.
string (read-only)
Celestial axis type for longitude, e.g. “RA”, “DEC”, “GLON”, “GLAT”, etc. extracted from ‘RA–’, ‘DEC-‘, ‘GLON’, ‘GLAT’, etc. in the first four characters of CTYPEia but with trailing dashes removed.
double
The native longitude of the celestial pole, LONPOLEa (deg).
double
Modified Julian Date (MJD = JD - 2400000.5), MJD-AVG, corresponding to DATE-AVG.
An undefined value is represented by NaN.
See also
double
Modified Julian Date (MJD = JD - 2400000.5), MJD-OBS, corresponding to DATE-OBS.
An undefined value is represented by NaN.
See also
string
The name given to the coordinate representation WCSNAMEa.
int (read-only)
The number of axes (pixel and coordinate), given by the NAXIS or WCSAXESa keyvalues.
The number of coordinate axes is determined at parsing time, and can not be subsequently changed.
It is determined from the highest of the following:
- NAXIS
- WCSAXESa
- The highest axis number in any parameterized WCS keyword. The keyvalue, as well as the keyword, must be syntactically valid otherwise it will not be considered.
If none of these keyword types is present, i.e. if the header only contains auxiliary WCS keywords for a particular coordinate representation, then no coordinate description is constructed for it.
This value may differ for different coordinate representations of the same image.
double array[3]
Location of the observer in a standard terrestrial reference frame, OBSGEO-X, OBSGEO-Y, OBSGEO-Z (in meters).
An undefined value is represented by NaN.
double array[naxis][naxis]
The PCi_ja (pixel coordinate) transformation matrix. The order is:
[[PC1_1, PC1_2],
[PC2_1, PC2_2]]
For historical compatibility, three alternate specifications of the linear transforations are available in wcslib. The canonical PCi_ja with CDELTia, CDi_ja, and the deprecated CROTAia keywords. Although the latter may not formally co-exist with PCi_ja, the approach here is simply to ignore them if given in conjunction with PCi_ja.
has_pc, has_cd and has_crota can be used to determine which of these alternatives are present in the header.
These alternate specifications of the linear transformation matrix are translated immediately to PCi_ja by set and are nowhere visible to the lower-level routines. In particular, set resets cdelt to unity if CDi_ja is present (and no PCi_ja). If no CROTAia is associated with the latitude axis, set reverts to a unity PCi_ja matrix.
double
The native latitude of the fiducial point, i.e. the point whose celestial coordinates are given in ref[1:2]. If undefined (NaN) the initialization routine, set, will set this to a projection-specific default.
See also
double array[2][2] (read-only)
Matrix containing the product of the CDELTia diagonal matrix and the PCi_ja matrix. DistortionLookupTable(table, crpix, crval, cdelt)
Represents a single lookup table for a Paper IV distortion transformation.
string
The equatorial or ecliptic coordinate system type, RADESYSa.
double
Rest frequency (Hz) from RESTFRQa.
An undefined value is represented by NaN.
double
Rest wavelength (m) from RESTWAVa.
An undefined value is represented by NaN.
int (read-only)
The index containing the spectral axis values.
string
Spectral reference frame (standard of rest), SPECSYSa.
string
The actual spectral reference frame in which there is no differential variation in the spectral coordinate across the field-of-view, SSYSOBSa.
string
The spectral reference frame (standard of rest) in which the redshift was measured, SSYSSRCa.
list of Tabprm
A list of tabular coordinate objects associated with this WCS.
double
The native longitude of the fiducial point, i.e. the point whose celestial coordinates are given in ref[1:2]. If undefined (NaN) the initialization routine, set, will set this to a projection-specific default.
See also
double
The angle in degrees that should be used to decompose an observed velocity into radial and transverse components.
An undefined value is represented by NaN.
double
The relative radial velocity (m/s) between the observer and the selected standard of rest in the direction of the celestial reference coordinate, VELOSYSa.
An undefined value is represented by NaN.
double
The redshift, ZSOURCEa, of the source.
An undefined value is represented by NaN.
A class to store the information related to tabular coordinates, i.e. coordinates that are defined via a lookup table.
This class can not be constructed directly from Python, but instead is returned from tab.
Print the contents of the Tabprm object to stdout. Probably only useful for debugging purposes, and may be removed in the future.
To get a string of the contents, use repr.
Allocates memory for work arrays in the Tabprm class and sets up the class according to information supplied within it.
Note that this routine need not be called directly; it will be invoked by functions that need it.
Exceptions:
int array[M] (read-only)
An array of length M whose elements record the lengths of the axes of the coordinate array and of each indexing vector.
int (read-only)
Number of tabular coordinate axes.
double array[K_M]...[K_2][K_1][M]
The tabular coordinate array, with the dimensions:
(K_M, ... K_2, K_1, M)
(see K) i.e. with the M dimension varying fastest so that the M elements of a coordinate vector are stored contiguously in memory.
double array[M]
Array whose elements contain the index value for the reference pixel for each of the tabular coordinate axes.
double array[M] (read-only)
Array of interpolated indices into the coordinate array such that Upsilon_m, as defined in Paper III, is equal to (p0 [m] + 1) + delta[m].
double array[K_M]...[K_2][2][M] (read-only)
An array recording the minimum and maximum value of each element of the coordinate vector in each row of the coordinate array, with the dimensions:
(K_M, ... K_2, 2, M)
(see K). The minimum is recorded in the first element of the compressed K_1 dimension, then the maximum. This array is used by the inverse table lookup function to speed up table searches.
int array[M]
A vector of length M that defines the association between axis m in the M-dimensional coordinate array (1 <= m <= M) and the indices of the intermediate world coordinate and world coordinate arrays.
When the intermediate and world coordinate arrays contain the full complement of coordinate elements in image-order, as will usually be the case, then map[m-1] == i-1 for axis i in the N-dimensional image (1 <= i <= N). In terms of the FITS keywords:
map[PVi_3a - 1] == i - 1.
However, a different association may result if the intermediate coordinates, for example, only contains a (relevant) subset of intermediate world coordinate elements. For example, if M == 1 for an image with N > 1, it is possible to fill the intermediate coordinates with the relevant coordinate element with nelem set to 1. In this case map[0] = 0 regardless of the value of i.
int (read-only)
Total number of coordinate vectors in the coordinate array being the product K_1 * K_2 * ... * K_M.