REVISIONS · SEE_ALSO
aidpars -- Automatic line identification parameters and algorithm
The automatic line identification parameters and algorithm used in autoidentify , identify , and reidentify are described.
- reflist = ""
- Optional reference coordinate list to use in the pattern matching algorithm in place of the task coordinate list. This file is a simple text list of dispersion coordinates. It would normally be a culled and limited list of lines for the specific data being identified.
- refspec = ""
- Optional reference dispersion calibrated spectrum. This template spectrum is used to select the prominent lines for the pattern matching algorithm. It need not have the same dispersion increment or dispersion coverage as the target spectrum.
- crpix = "INDEF"
- Coordinate reference pixel for the coordinate reference value specified by the crval parameter. This may be specified as a pixel coordinate or an image header keyword name (with or without a ! prefix). In the latter case the value of the keyword in the image header of the spectrum being identified is used. A value of INDEF translates to the middle of the target spectrum.
- crquad = INDEF
- Quadratic correction to the detected pixel positions to "linearize" the
pattern of line spacings. The corrected positions x' are derived from
the measured positions x by
x' = x + crquad * (x - crpix)**2
where crpix is the pixel reference point as defined by the crpix parameter. The measured and corrected positions may be examined by using the t debug flag. The value may be a number or a header keyword (with or without a ! prefix). The default of INDEF translates to zero; i.e. no quadratic correction.
- cddir = "sign" (unknown|sign|increasing|decreasing)
- The sense of the dispersion increment with respect to the pixel coordinates in the input spectrum. The possible values are "increasing" or "decreasing" if the dispersion coordinates increase or decrease with increasing pixel coordinates, "sign" to use the sign of the dispersion increment (positive is increasing and negative is decreasing), and "unknown" if the sense is unknown and to be determined by the algorithm.
- crsearch = "INDEF"
- Coordinate reference value search radius. The value may be specified as a numerical value or as an image header keyword (with or without a ! prefix) whose value is to be used. The algorithm will search for a final coordinate reference value within this amount of the value specified by crval . If the value is positive the search radius is the specified value. If the value is negative it is the absolute value of this parameter times cdelt times the number of pixels in the input spectrum; i.e. it is the fraction of dispersion range covered by the target spectrum assuming a dispersion increment per pixel of cdelt . A value of INDEF translates to -0.1 which corresponds to a search radius of 10% of the estimated dispersion range.
- cdsearch = "INDEF"
- Dispersion coordinate increment search radius. The value may be specified as a numerical value or as an image header keyword (with or without a ! prefix) whose value is to be used. The algorithm will search for a dispersion coordinate increment within this amount of the value specified by cdelt . If the value is positive the search radius is the specified value. If the value is negative it is the absolute value of this parameter times cdelt ; i.e. it is a fraction of cdelt . A value of INDEF translates to -0.1 which corresponds to a search radius of 10% of cdelt .
- ntarget = 100
- Number of spectral lines from the target spectrum to use in the pattern matching.
- npattern = 5
- Initial number of spectral lines in patterns to be matched. There is a minimum of 3 and a maximum of 10. The algorithm starts with the specified number and if no solution is found with that number it is iteratively decreased by one to the minimum of 3. A larger number yields fewer and more likely candidate matches and so will produce a result sooner. But in order to be thorough the algorithm will try smaller patterns to search more possiblities.
- nneighbors = 10
- Number of neighbors to use in making patterns of lines. This parameter restricts patterns to include lines which are near each other.
- nbins = 6
- Maximum number of bins to divide the reference coordinate list or spectrum in searching for a solution. When there are no weak dispersion constraints the algorithm subdivides the full range of the coordinate list or reference spectrum into one bin, two bins, etc. up to this maximum. Each bin is searched for a solution.
- ndmax = 1000
- Maximum number of candidate dispersions to examine. The algorithm ranks candidate dispersions by how many candidate spectral lines are fit and the the weights assigned by the pattern matching algorithm. Starting from the highest rank it tests each candidate dispersion to see if it is a satisfactory solution. This parameter determines how many candidate dispersion in the ranked list are examined.
- aidord = (minimum of 2)
- The order of the dispersion function fit by the automatic identification algorithm. This is the number of polynomial coefficients so a value of two is a linear function and a value of three is a quadratic function. The order should be restricted to values of two or three. Higher orders can lead to incorrect solutions because of the increased degrees of freedom if finding incorrect line identifications.
- maxnl = 0.02
- Maximum non-linearity allowed in any trial dispersion function.
The definition of the non-linearity test is
maxnl > (w(0.5) - w(0)) / (w(1) - w(0)) - 0.5
where w(x) is the dispersion function value (e.g. wavelength) of the fit and x is a normalized pixel positions where the endpoints of the spectrum are [0,1]. If the test fails on a trial dispersion fit then a linear function is determined.
- nfound = 6
- Minimum number of identified spectral lines required in the final solution. If a candidate solution has fewer identified lines it is rejected.
- sigma = 0.05
- Sigma (uncertainty) in the line center estimates specified in pixels. This is used to propagate uncertainties in the line spacings in the observed patterns of lines.
- minratio = 0.1
- Minimum spacing ratio used. Patterns of lines in which the ratio of spacings between consecutive lines is less than this amount are excluded.
- rms = 0.1
- RMS goal for a correct dispersion solution. This is the RMS in the measured spectral lines relative to the expected positions from the coordinate line list based on the coordinate dispersion solution. The parameter is specified in terms of the line centering parameter fwidth since for broader lines the pixel RMS would be expected to be larger. A pixel-based RMS criterion is used to be independent of the dispersion. The RMS will be small for a valid solution.
- fmatch = 0.2
- Goal for the fraction of unidentified lines in a correct dispersion solution. This is the fraction of the strong lines seen in the spectrum which are not identified and also the fraction of all lines in the coordinate line list, within the range of the dispersion solution, not identified. Both fractions will be small for a valid solution.
- debug = ""
- Print or display debugging information. This is intended for the developer
and not the user. The parameter is specified as a string of characters
where each character displays some information. The characters are:
a: Print candidate line assignments. b: Print search limits. c: Print list of line ratios. * d: Graph dispersions. * f: Print final result. * l: Graph lines and spectra. r: Print list of reference lines. * s: Print search iterations. t: Print list of target lines. v: Print vote array. w: Print wavelength bin limits.
The items with an asterisk are the most useful. The graphs are exited with q or Q.
The aidpars parameter set contains the parameters for the automatic spectral line identification algorithm used in the task autoidentify , identify , and reidentify . These tasks include the parameter aidpars which links to this parameters set. Typing aidpars allows these parameters to be edited. When editing the parameters of the other tasks with eparam one can edit the aidpars parameters by type ":e" when pointing to the aidpars task parameter. The values of the aidpars parameters may also be set on the command line for the task. The discussion which follows describes the parameters and the algorithm.
The goal of the automatic spectral line identification algorithm is to automate the identification of spectral lines so that given an observed spectrum of a spectral line source (called the target spectrum) and a file of known dispersion coordinates for the lines, the software will identify the spectral lines and use these identifications to determine a dispersion function. This algorithm is quite general so that the correct identifications and dispersion function may be found even when there is limited or no knowledge of the dispersion coverage and resolution of the observation.
However, when a general line list, including a large dispersion range and many weak lines, is used and the observation covers a much smaller portion of the coordinate list the algorithm may take a long to time or even fail to find a solution. Thus, it is highly desirable to provide additional input giving approximate dispersion parameters and their uncertainties. When available, a dispersion calibrated reference spectrum (not necessarily of the same resolution or wavelength coverage) also aids the algorithm by indicating the relative strengths of the lines in the coordinate file. The line strengths need not be very similar (due to different lamps or detectors) but will still help separate the inherently weak and strong lines.
The primary inputs to the algorithm are the observed one dimensional target spectrum in which the spectral lines are to be identified and a dispersion function determined and a file of reference dispersion coordinates. These inputs are provided in the tasks using the automatic line identification algorithm.
One way to limit the algorithm to a specific dispersion region and to the important spectral lines is to use a limited coordinate list. One may do this with the task coordinate list parameter (coordlist ). However, it is desirable to use a standard master line list that includes all the lines, both strong and weak. Therefore, one may specify a limited line list with the parameter reflist . The coordinates in this list will be used by the automatic identification algorithm to search for patterns while using the primary coordinate list for adding weaker lines during the dispersion function fitting.
The tasks autoidentify and identify also provide parameters to limit the search range. These parameters specify a reference dispersion coordinate (crval ) and a dispersion increment per pixel (cdelt ). When these parameters are INDEF this tells the algorithm to search for a solution over the entire range of possibilities covering the coordinate line list or reference spectrum.
The reference dispersion coordinate refers to an approximate coordinate at the reference pixel coordinate specified by the parameter crpix . The default value for the reference pixel coordinate is INDEF which translates to the central pixel of the target spectrum.
The parameters crsearch and cdsearch specify the expected range or uncertainty of the reference dispersion coordinate and dispersion increment per pixel respectively. They may be specified as an absolute value or as a fraction. When the values are positive they are used as an absolute value;
crval(final) = \fIcrval\fR +/- \fIcrsearch\fR cdelt(final) = \fIcdelt\fR +/- \fIcdsearch\fR.
When the values are negative they are used as a fraction of the dispersion range or fraction of the dispersion increment;
crval(final) = \fIcrval\fR +/- abs (\fIcrsearch\fR * \fIcdelt\fR) * N_pix cdelt(final) = \fIcdelt\fR +/- abs (\fIcdsearch\fR * \fIcdelt\fR)
where abs is the absolute value function and N_pix is the number of pixels in the target spectrum. When the ranges are not given explicitly, that is they are specified as INDEF, default values of -0.1 are used.
The parameters crval , cdelt , crpix , crsearch , and cdsearch may be given explicit numerical values or may be image header keyword names. In the latter case the values of the indicated keywords are used. This feature allows the approximate dispersion range information to be provided by the data acquisition system; either by the instrumentation or by user input.
Because sometimes only the approximate magnitude of the dispersion increment is known and not the sign (i.e. whether the dispersion coordinates increase or decrease with increasing pixel coordinates) the parameter cdsign specifies if the dispersion direction is "increasing", "decreasing", "unknown", or defined by the "sign" of the approximate dispersion increment parameter (sign of cdelt ).
The above parameters defining the approximate dispersion of the target spectrum apply to autoidentify and identify . The task reidentify does not use these parameters except that the shift parameter corresponds to crsearch if it is non-zero. This task assumes that spectra to be reidentified are the same as a reference spectrum except for a zero point dispersion offset; i.e. the approximate dispersion parameters are the same as the reference spectrum. The dispersion increment search range is set to be 5% and the sign of the dispersion increment is the same as the reference spectrum.
An optional input is a dispersion calibrated reference spectrum (referred to as the reference spectrum in the discussion). This is specified either in the coordinate line list file or by the parameter refspec . To specify a spectrum in the line list file the comment "# Spectrum <image>" is included where <image> is the image filename of the reference spectrum. Some of the standard line lists in linelists$ may include a reference spectrum. The reference spectrum is used to select the strongest lines for the pattern matching algorithm.
First a list of the pixel positions for the strong spectral lines in the target spectrum is created. This is accomplished by finding the local maxima, sorting them by pixel value, and then using a centering algorithm (center1d ) to accurately find the centers of the line profiles. Note that task parameters ftype , fwidth , cradius , threshold , and minsep are used for the centering. The number of spectral lines selected is set by the parameter ntarget .
In order to insure that lines are selected across the entire spectrum when all the strong lines are concentrated in only a part of the spectrum, the spectrum is divided into five regions and approximately a fifth of the requested number of lines is found in each region.
A list of reference dispersion coordinates is selected from the coordinate file (coordlist or reflist ). The number of reference dispersion coordinates is set at twice the number of target lines found. The reference coordinates are either selected uniformly from the coordinate file or by locating the strong spectral lines (in the same way as for the target spectrum) in a reference spectrum if one is provided. The selection is limited to the expected range of the dispersion as specified by the user. If no approximate dispersion information is provided the range of the coordinate file or reference spectrum is used.
The ratios of consecutive spacings (the lists are sorted in increasing order) for N-tuples of coordinates are computed from both lists. The size of the N-tuple pattern is set by the npattern parameter. Rather than considering all possible combinations of lines only patterns of lines with all members within nneighbors in the lists are used; i.e. the first and last members of a pattern must be within nneighbors of each other in the lists. The default case is to find all sets of five lines which are within ten lines of each other and compute the three spacing ratios. Because very small spacing ratios become uncertain, the line patterns are limited to those with ratios greater than the minimum specified by the minratio parameter. Note that if the direction of the dispersion is unknown then one computes the ratios in the reference coordinates in both directions.
The basic idea is that similar patterns in the pixel list and the dispersion list will have matching spacing ratios to within a tolerance derived by the uncertainties in the line positions (sigma ) from the target spectrum. The reference dispersion coordinates are assumed to have no uncertainty. All matches in the ratio space are found between patterns in the two lists. When matches are made then the candidate identifications (pixel, reference dispersion coordinate) between the elements of the patterns are recorded. After finding all the matches in ratio space a count is made of how often each possible candidate identification is found. When there are a sufficient number of true pairs between the lists (of order 25% of the shorter list) then true identifications will appear in common in many different patterns. Thus the highest counts of candidate identifications are the most likely to be true identifications.
Because the relationship between the pixel positions of the lines in the target spectrum and the line positions in the reference coordinate space is generally non-linear the line spacing ratios are distorted and may reduce the pattern matching. The line patterns are normally restricted to be somewhat near each other by the nneighbors so some degree of distortion can be tolerated. But in order to provide the ability to remove some of this distortion when it is known the parameter crquad is provided. This parameter applies a quadratic transformion to the measured pixel positions to another set of "linearized" positions which are used in the line ratio pattern matching. The form of the transformation is
x' = x + crquad * (x - crpix)**2
where x is the measured position, x' is the transformed position, crquad is the value of the distortion parameter, and crpix is the value of the coordinate reference position.
If approximate dispersion parameters and search ranges are defined then candidate identifications which fall outside the range of dispersion function possibilities are rejected. From the remaining candidate identifications the highest vote getters are selected. The number selected is three times the number of target lines.
All linear dispersions functions, where dispersion and pixel coordinates are related by a zero point and slope, are found that pass within two pixels of two or more of the candidate identifications. The dispersion functions are ranked primarily by the number of candidate identifications fitting the dispersion and secondarily by the total votes in the identifications. Only the highest ranking candidate linear dispersion are kept. The number of candidate dispersions kept is set by the parameter ndmax .
The candidate dispersions are evaluated in order of their ranking. Each line in the coordinate file (coordlist ) is converted to a pixel coordinate based on the dispersion function. The centering algorithm attempts to find a line profile near that position as defined by the match parameter. This may be specified in pixel or dispersion coordinates. All the lines found are used to fit a polynomial dispersion function with aidord coefficients. The order should be linear or quadratic because otherwise the increased degrees of freedom allow unrealistic dispersion functions to appear to give a good result. A quadratic function (aidord = 3) is allowed since this is the approximate form of many dispersion functions.
However, to avoid unrealistic dispersion functions a test is made that the maximum amplitude deviation from a linear function is less than an amount specified by the maxnl parameter. The definition of the test is
maxnl > (w(0.5) - w(0)) / (w(1) - w(0)) - 0.5
where w(x) is the dispersion function value (e.g. wavelength) of the fit and x is a normalized pixel positions where the endpoints of the spectrum are [0,1]. What this relation means is that the wavelength interval between one end and the center relative to the entire wavelength interval is within maxnl of one-half. If the test fails then a linear function is fit. The process of adding lines based on the last dispersion function and then refitting the dispersion function is iterated twice. At the end of this step if fewer than the number of lines specified by the parameter nfound have been identified the candidate dispersion is eliminated.
The quality of the line identifications and dispersion solution is evaluated based on three criteria. The first one is the root-mean-square of the residuals between the pixel coordinates derived from lines found from the dispersion coordinate file based on the dispersion function and the observed pixel coordinates. This pixel RMS is normalized by the target RMS set with the rms parameter. Note that the rms parameter is specified in units of the fwidth parameter. This is because if the lines are broader, requiring a larger fwidth to obtain a centroid, then the expected uncertainty would be larger. A good solution will have a normalized rms value less than one. A pixel RMS criterion, as opposed to a dispersion coordinate RMS, is used since this is independent of the actual dispersion of the spectrum.
The other two criteria are the fraction of strong lines from the target spectrum list which were not identified with lines in the coordinate file and the fraction of all the lines in the coordinate file (within the dispersion range covered by the candidate dispersion) which were not identified. These are normalized to a target value given by fmatch . The default matching goal is 0.3 which means that less than 30% of the lines should be unidentified or greater than 70% should be identified. As with the RMS, a value of one or less corresponds to a good solution.
The reason the fraction identified criteria are used is that the pixel RMS can be minimized by finding solutions with large dispersion increment per pixel. This puts all the lines in the coordinate file into a small range of pixels and so (incorrect) lines with very small residuals can be found. The strong line identification criterion is clearly a requirement that humans use in evaluating a solution. The fraction of all lines identified, as opposed to the number of lines identified, in the coordinate file is included to reduce the case of a large dispersion increment per pixel mapping a large number of lines (such as the entire list) into the range of pixels in the target spectrum. This can give the appearance of finding a large number of lines from the coordinate file. However, an incorrect dispersion will also find a large number which are not matched. Hence the fraction not matched will be high.
The three criteria, all of which are normalized so that values less than one are good, are combined to a single figure of merit by a weighted average. Equal weights have been found to work well; i.e. each criterion is one-third of the figure of merit. In testing it has been found that all correct solutions over a wide range of resolutions and dispersion coverage have figures of merit less than one and typically of order 0.2. All incorrect candidate dispersion have values of order two to three.
The search for the correct dispersion function terminates immediately, but after checking the first five most likely candidates, when a figure of merit less than one is found. The order in which the candidate dispersions are tested, that is by rank, was chosen to try the most promising first so that often the correct solution is found on the first attempt.
When the approximate dispersion is not known or is imprecise it is often the case that the pixel and coordinate lists will not overlap enough to have a sufficient number true coordinate pairs. Thus, at a higher level the above steps are iterated by partitioning the dispersion space searched into bins of various sizes. The largest size is the maximum dispersion range including allowance for the search radii. The smallest size bin is obtained by dividing the dispersion range by the number specified by the nbins parameter. The actual number of bins searched at each bin size is actually twice the number of bins minus one because the bins are overlapped by 50%.
The search is done starting with bins in the middle of the size range and in the middle of the dispersion range and working outward towards larger and smaller bins and larger and smaller dispersion ranges. This is done to improved the chances of finding the correction dispersion function in the smallest number of steps.
Another iteration performed if no solution is found after trying all the candidate dispersion and bins is to reduce the number of lines in the pattern. So the parameter npattern is an initial maximum pattern. A larger pattern gives fewer and higher quality candidate identifications and so converges faster. However, if no solution is found the algorithm tries more possible matches produced by a lower number of lines in the pattern. The pattern groups are reduced to a minimum of three lines.
When a set of line identifications and dispersion solution satisfying the figure of merit criterion is found a final step is performed. Up to this point only linear dispersion functions are used since higher order function can be stretch in unrealistic ways to give good RMS values and fit all the lines. The final step is to use the line identifications to fit a dispersion function using all the parameters specified by the user (such as function type, order, and rejection parameters). This is iterated to add new lines from the coordinate list based on the more general dispersion function and then obtain a final dispersion function. The line identifications and dispersion function are then returned to the task using this automatic line identification algorithm.
If a satisfactory solution is not found after searching all the possibilities the algorithm will inform the task using it and the task will report this appropriately.
1. List the parameters.
cl> lpar aidpars
2. Edit the parameters with eparam .
3. Edit the aidpars parameters from within autoidentify .
cl> epar autoid [edit the parameters] [move to the "aidpars" parameter and type :e] [edit the aidpars parameters and type :q or EOF character] [finish editing the autoidentify parameters] [type :wq or the EOF character]
4. Set one of the parameters on the command line.
cl> autoidentify spec002 5400 2.5 crpix=1
- AIDPARS V2.12.2
- There were many changes made in the paramters and algorithm. New parameters are "crquad" and "maxnl". Changed definitions are for "rms". Default value changes are for "cddir", "ntarget", "ndmax", and "fmatch". The most significant changes in the algorithm are to allow for more non-linear dispersion with the "maxnl" parameter, to decrease the "npattern" value if no solution is found with the specified value, and to search a larger number of candidate dispersions.
- AIDPARS V2.11
- This parameter set is new in this version.