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astcalc astutil


NAME · USAGE · PARAMETERS · DESCRIPTION · FORMATS · EXAMPLES
REVISIONS · SEE_ALSO

NAME

astcalc -- astronomical calculator

USAGE

astcalc

PARAMETERS

commands
A file of commands using the simple syntax given in the DESCRIPTION. If no file name is given then the commands are read interactively from the standard input with a prompt given by the prompt parameter. The comand input ends with either EOF or "quit". If a list of images and/or a table is specified the commands are repeated for each image or until the end of the table is reached. Comments beginning with #, blank lines, and escaped newlines are allowed.
images = ""
Optional list of images. The command input is repeated for each image. Image header keyword values may be read and used as variables and keywords may be created, modified, or deleted provided the image has read-write permissions.
table = ""
Optional text file containing columns of values. The table consists of one or more lines of whitespace separated columns of values. Note that a string with whitespace needs to be quoted. The lines may be scanned and the values assigned to variables for use in expressions. If the command input includes reading from the table then the commands will be repeated until all the lines in the table have been read.
prompt = "astcalc> "
When no command file is specified the input commands are read from the standard input (the terminal) and the value of the prompt string is printed as a prompt. Note that if the input command file is specified as "STDIN" there will be no prompt even though commands will also be read from the standard input.
verbose = no
Print each variable assignment? This is useful for debugging command files.

DESCRIPTION

Astcalc evaluates statements using variables, constants, and functions. Of special interest are many astronomical functions and the ability to read and write image header keywords (images ), read from a text file (table ), and read and write CL parameters.

This task may be used interactively or with input from a command file (commands ). If no command file is specified a prompt (prompt ) is printed and commands are entered interactively. The input is terminated with either the end-of-file character (EOF) or the command "quit". Input command files simply contain the same input in a file and end with the end of the file or "quit". The input commands, either those entered interactively or from a file, are repeated for each image in the image list and until the end of the input text table is reached, whichever comes first. The image list and the table are optional and if neither is specified the commands are executed just once.

The command input consists of statements with each statement on a line by itself. However long statements may be broken up with escaped newlines using the back-slash as the escape character; i.e. \<newline>. Comments beginning with #, blank lines, and whitespace are ignored.

There are three types of statements: assignment, expressions, and conditional. Each statement is on a line by itself though long statements may be broken up with escaped newlines (\<newline>). Assignment statements have a variable name, an equal sign, and an expression. Expression statements consist of only the expression with the value of the expression being ignored. Expression statements are generally used with certain functions. Conditional statements are blocks of if-endif and if-else-endif with assignment and expression statements between the if-else-endif statements. These may not be nested.

A variable is an arbitrary identifier which must begin with an alphabetic character or $ followed by an alphabetic character and may use alphabetic characters, digits, or the characters _, $, or .. Other special characters may be used but they must be set and referenced with the special @ operator described below. Lower and upper case characters may be used and are considered different characters; i.e. identifiers are case sensitive (as are function names).

There are a few special predefined variables: "$D" contains the current local date (in old FITS DD/MM/YY format), "$T" contains the current local time, "$GMD" contains the current Greenwich meridian date (in FITS YYYY-MM-DD format), "$GMT" contains the current Greenwich meridian time, and "$GMDT" containts the current date and time in FITS YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SS format.

The expression syntax is described below. Expressions may use previously define variable names, constants (both quoted strings and numeric values), and functions. The functions are given below. Input from image headers, and text files, and CL parameters, and output to image headers is performed by I/O functions.

In astcalc variables are maintained internally and input and output are performed explicitly by functions. A related task is asthedit . In that task variables are image header keywords and references to keywords (assignments, use in expressions, and by themselves with no expression) read and write to the image headers. Updating of the image headers, however, can be suppressed. Also a line of a text table is read automatically at the beginning of the command input so that column values can be referenced directly.

STATEMENTS

The following gives a more formal description of the statement syntax and the special words "if", "else", "endif", and "quit".

        <variable> = <expression>
        <expression>
        if (<expression>)
            <statements>
        endif
        if (<expression>)
            <statements>
        else
            <statements>
        endif
        quit

The result of the expression in the "if" statement is normally a logical value. However, a numeric value of 0 is false while any other value is true and any string beginning with either "y" or "Y" is true with any other value being false; i.e. string values of yes and no may be used.

VARIABLES

Variables may formally be defined as:

        [$]{a-zA-Z}[{a-zA-Z0-9._$}]*

where [] indicate optional, {} indicates a class, - indicates an ascii range of characters, and * indicates zero or more occurances. Stated in words, a variable must begin with an alphabetic character (ignoring an option leading $) and may be followed by any combinations of alphabetic, digit, or ., _, and $ characters.

There are a few predefined variables which may be referenced in expressions.

        $I      The name of the current image (if used)
        $D      The current date in the DD/MM/YY format
        $T      The current (local) time as a sexigesimal string

The date and time are set once at the beginning of execution.

Though not recommended it is possible to use any set of characters for a variable provided the variable is referenced as @"<name>". For example one could use @"date-obs" to include the character -.

EXPRESSIONS

Expressions consist of operands and operators. The operands may be any PREVIOUSLY DEFINED variables, quoted string constants, numeric constants, and functions. Values given as sexagesimal strings are automatically converted to decimal numbers. The operators are arithmetic, logical, and string. The expression syntax is equivalent to that used in the CL and SPP languages.

Additional information may be found in the help for hedit except that all unqoted nonnumeric strings are considered to be variables and so the (, ) operators are not used. The "field" references are not needed so the references "." and "$" are not used and are not legal variable names in this task.

operators:

The following operators are recognized in expressions. With the exception of the operators "?" and "?=", the operator set is equivalent to that available in the CL and SPP languages.

        +  -  *  /              arithmetic operators
        **                      exponentiation
        //                      string concatenation
        !  -                    boolean not, unary negation
        <  <= >  >=             order comparision (works for strings)
        == != && ||             equals, not equals, and, or
        ?=                      string equals pattern
        ? :                     conditional expression
	@			reference a variable

The operators "==", "&&", and "||" may be abbreviated as "=", "&", and "|" if desired. The ?= operator performs pattern matching upon strings.

A point to be aware of is that in the ?: conditional expression both possible result values are evaluated though the result of the expression is only one of them. This means that one should not use this to call I/O functions that one wants to be executed only if a certain condition holds.

intrinsic functions:

A number of standard intrinsic functions are recognized within expressions. The set of functions currently supported is shown below.

	abs     atan2   deg     log     min     real    sqrt
	acos    bool    double  log10   mod     short   str
	asin    cos     exp     long    nint    sin     tan
	atan    cosh    int     max     rad     sinh    tanh

The trigonometric functions operate in units of radians. The min and max functions may have any number of arguments up to a maximum of sixteen or so (configurable). The arguments need not all be of the same datatype.

A function call may take either of the following forms:

        <identifier> '(' arglist ')'
or
        <string_expr> '(' arglist ')'

The first form is the conventional form found in all programming languages. The second permits the generation of function names by string valued expressions and might be useful on rare occasions.

astronomical functions:

In addition to the above intrinsic functions there are a number of astronomical functions. More will be added in time. These are:

     sexstr - convert a number to a sexagesimal string (xx:mm:ss.ss)
      epoch - compute an epoch given a date and time
     julday - compute a Julian day given a date and time
        mst - compute a mean siderial time w/ date, time, and longitude
 ra_precess - precess ra from one epoch to another
dec_precess - precess dec from one epoch to another
    airmass - compute airmass w/ ra, dec, siderial time, and latitude
   eairmass - compute effective airmass given
                ra, dec, siderial time, exposure time, and latitude
      obsdb - get parameters from the observatory database

sexstr (number), sexstr (number, digits)
Convert a number to a sexagesimal string in the format X:MM:SS.SS. There is an optional second argument (the default is 0) which is the number of decimal digits in the seconds field.
epoch (date[, ut])
Compute an epoch given a date and time. The date is a string in the format DD/MM/YY, YYYY-MM-DD, or YYYY-MM-DDTHH:MM:SS. Typically this argument will be the standard FITS keyword DATE-OBS. Because of possible confusion of the hyphen with subtraction this keyword would be specified as @"date-obs". The time argument is optional. If it is not given the time from the date string will be used and if absent a time of 0h is used.
julday (date[, ut])
Compute a Julian day given a date and time. The date and time are specified as described previously.
mst (date[, ut], longitude)
Compute a mean siderial time given a date, time, and longitude in degrees. The date and (optional) time are specified as described previously. The longitude may be given as a constant or using the observatory database function as shown in the examples. The returned value is a sexagesimal string with two decimals in the seconds.
precess (ra, dec, epoch1, epoch2)
Precess coordinates from one epoch to another. The ra is the right ascension in hours, the dec in the declination in degrees, and the epochs are in years. This function returns a formated string with the precessed right ascension, declination, and epoch. Numerical values for the right ascension and declination are obtained with the functions ra_precess and dec_precess.
ra_precess (ra, dec, epoch1, epoch2)
Precess a right ascension from one epoch to another. The ra is the input right ascension in hours, the dec is the declination in degrees, and the epochs are in years. Because a function can return only one value there is a second function to return the precessed declination. The returned value is a sexagesimal string with two decimals in the seconds.
dec_precess (ra1, dec1, epoch1, epoch2)
Precess a declination from one epoch to another. The ra is the input right ascension in hours, the dec is the declination in degrees, and the epochs are in years. Because a function can return only one value there is a second function to return the precessed right ascension. The returned value is a sexagesimal string with two decimals in the seconds.
arcsep (ra1, dec1, ra2, dec2)
Compute the separation between two spherical coordinates. The parameters ra1 and ra2 are coordinates in hours (right ascension, longitude, etc.) and the dec1 and dec2 parameters are coordinates in degrees (declination, latitude, etc.). The computed value is returned in seconds of arc.
airmass (ra, dec, st, latitude)
Compute an airmass given right ascension in hours, declination in degrees, sideral time in hours, and latitude in degrees. The latitude is often specified using the observatory database function as shown in the examples.
eairmass (ra, dec, st, exptime, latitude)
Compute an "effective" airmass given right ascension in hours, declination in degrees, beginning sideral time in hours, exposure time in seconds, and latitude in degrees. The The latitude is often specified using the observatory database function as shown in the examples. The effective airmass is based on a Simpson's rule weighting of the beginning, middle, and ending airmass (with no provision for paused exposure). The weights are:

    effective = beginning + 4 * middle + ending
obsdb (observatory, parameter)
Return a value from the observatory database. The observatory parameter is a observatory identification string as defined in the database. Another special value is "observatory" which then follows a name resolution scheme. The observatory database mechanism is described by the help topic observatory . The parameter is a string given the quantity desired. Typically this would be "longitude" or "latitude" but there are other possible parameters.

input/output functions:

There are special functions for formating, printing, error aborts, reading, writing, and deleting image header keywords, reading a text file, and reading and writing CL parameters.

     print  - print a set of arguments with default format
     printf - print a set arguments with specified format
     format - format a string
     error  - print an error message and abort
     clget  - get a value from a CL parameter
     clput  - put a value to a CL parameter
      scan  - scan a string and parse into variables
     fscan  - scan a line of a text file
     imget  - get the value of an image header keyword
     imput  - put (add or modify) the value of an image header keyword
     imdel  - delete an image header keyword

print ([argument, ...])
Print the arguments with default formats based on the type of value ending with a newline. There may be zero or more arguments. With zero arguments only a newline will be printed.
printf (fmt [, argument, ...])
Print a list of arguments using the formatting syntax described later. Parameters to be formatted are given by the % fields and the values are passed as further arguments in the order in which they are referenced. There is no automatic newline so the format must include "\n" to produce newlines.
error (message)
Print the "message", which can be any string variable such as might be produced by "format", and abort the task. This is useful in conjunction with the conditional operator to abort if a variable takes an inappropriate value.
clget (parameter)
Get the value of a CL parameter. The argument must be a string. The function value is the value of the parameter.
clput (parameter, value)
Put a value into a CL parameter. The parameter argument must be a string and the value can be anything. The function returns a string of the form "clput: parameter = value" where parameter and value are the actual values.
scan (string, var, ...)
Parse a string of whitespace separated words into a list of variables. The number of variables assigned is the returned value of the function.
fscan (var, ...)
Scan a line of a text file into a list of variables. The arguments are zero or more variable names to which to assign the values of the whitespace separated fields. The number of variables assigned is the returned value of the function.
imget (parameter)
Get the value of an image header keyword from the current image. The argument must be a string. The function value is the value of the keyword.
imput (parameter, value)
Put a value into an image header keyowrd for the current image. The parameter argument must be a string and the value can be anything. If the keyword exists it will be modified and if it does not exist it will be added. The function returns a string of the form "imput: parameter = value" for new keywords or "imput: parameter = old_value -> value" for modified keywords where parameter and value are the actual values.
imdel (parameter)
Delete an image header keyword. The parameter argument must be a string. The returned values are the strings "imdel: parameter not found" or "imdel: parameter = value (DELETED)" where parameter is the parameter name and value is the old value.

FORMATS

A format specification has the form "%w.dCn", where w is the field width, d is the number of decimal places or the number of digits of precision, C is the format code, and n is radix character for format code "r" only. The w and d fields are optional. The format codes C are as follows:

b       boolean (YES or NO)
c       single character (c or '\c' or '\0nnn')
d       decimal integer
e       exponential format (D specifies the precision)
f       fixed format (D specifies the number of decimal places)
g       general format (D specifies the precision)
h       hms format (hh:mm:ss.ss, D = no. decimal places)
m       minutes, seconds (or hours, minutes) (mm:ss.ss)
o       octal integer
rN      convert integer in any radix N
s       string (D field specifies max chars to print)
t       advance To column given as field W
u       unsigned decimal integer 
w       output the number of spaces given by field W
x       hexadecimal integer
z       complex format (r,r) (D = precision)
    
    
Conventions for w (field width) specification:
    
    W =  n      right justify in field of N characters, blank fill
        -n      left justify in field of N characters, blank fill
        0n      zero fill at left (only if right justified)
absent, 0       use as much space as needed (D field sets precision)
    
    
Escape sequences (e.g. "\n" for newline):
    
\b      backspace   (not implemented)
\f      formfeed
\n      newline (crlf)
\r      carriage return
\t      tab
\"      string delimiter character
\'      character constant delimiter character
\\      backslash character
\nnn    octal value of character
    
Examples
    
%s          format a string using as much space as required
%-10s       left justify a string in a field of 10 characters
%-10.10s    left justify and truncate a string in a field of 10 characters
%10s        right justify a string in a field of 10 characters
%10.10s     right justify and truncate a string in a field of 10 characters
    
%7.3f       print a real number right justified in floating point format
%-7.3f      same as above but left justified
%15.7e      print a real number right justified in exponential format
%-15.7e     same as above but left justified
%12.5g      print a real number right justified in general format
%-12.5g     same as above but left justified

%h          format as nn:nn:nn.n
%15h        right justify nn:nn:nn.n in field of 15 characters
%-15h       left justify nn:nn:nn.n in a field of 15 characters
%12.2h      right justify nn:nn:nn.nn
%-12.2h     left justify nn:nn:nn.nn
    
%H          / by 15 and format as nn:nn:nn.n
%15H        / by 15 and right justify nn:nn:nn.n in field of 15 characters
%-15H       / by 15 and left justify nn:nn:nn.n in field of 15 characters
%12.2H      / by 15 and right justify nn:nn:nn.nn
%-12.2H     / by 15 and left justify nn:nn:nn.nn

\n          insert a newline

EXAMPLES

1. This example shows interactive use.

    cl> astcalc
    astcalc> print ((1 + 2 + 3) / 2 - 2 * 2)
    -1
    astcalc> observatory = "kpno"
    astcalc> date = "05/04/87"
    astcalc> ut = 9:27:27
    astcalc> ra = 13:29:24
    astcalc> dec = 47:15:34
    astcalc> epoch = epoch (date, ut)
    astcalc> mst = mst (date, ut, obsdb (observatory, "longitude"))
    astcalc> print (epoch)
    1987.257752395672
    astcalc> print (mst)
    14:53:39.81
    astcalc> print (julday (date, ut))
    2446890.894062519
    astcalc> print (ra_precess (ra, dec, epoch, 1950))
    13:27:49.84
    astcalc> print (dec_precess (ra, dec, epoch, 1950))
    47:27:05.72
    astcalc> print (airmass (ra, dec, mst, obsdb (observatory, "latitude")))
    1.07968417231416
    astcalc> printf ("Hello World: %s\n", precess (ra, dec, epoch, 1950))
    Hello World: 13:27:49.84  47:27:05.7   1950.
    astcalc> quit

2. This example shows the same commands as in the previous example read from a file.

    cl> type example2.dat
    # Define variables.
    observatory = "kpno"
    date = "05/04/87"
    ut = 9:27:27
    ra = 13:29:24
    dec = 47:15:34
    epoch = epoch (date, ut)
    mst = mst (date, ut, obsdb (observatory, "longitude"))

    # Print results of some expressions.
    print ((1 + 2 + 3) / 2 - 2 * 2)       # Calculation with constants
    print (epoch)                         # Print variable
    print (mst)                           # Print variable
    print (julday (date, ut))             # Print result of function
    print (ra_precess (ra, dec, epoch, 1950))
    print (dec_precess (ra, dec, epoch, 1950))
    print (airmass (ra, dec, mst, obsdb (observatory, "latitude")))

    # Formated print with arguments.  Note newline.
    printf ("Hello World: %s\n", precess (ra, dec, epoch, 1950))
    cl> astcalc commands=example2.dat
    -1
    1987.257752395672
    14:53:39.81
    2446890.894062519
    13:27:49.84
    47:27:05.72
    1.07968417231416
    Hello World: 13:27:49.84  47:27:05.7   1950.

3. This example precesses coordinates given in a text file.

    cl> type example3.dat,table.dat
    ===> example3.dat <===
    # Read table of RA, DEC, and optional EPOCH and precess to 2000.

    epoch = 1900            # Default input epoch
    epoch1 = 2000           # Precession epoch

    # Scan table and precess coordinates.
    if (fscan ("ra", "dec", "epoch") >= 2)
	ra1 = ra_precess (ra, dec, epoch, epoch1)
	dec1 = dec_precess (ra, dec, epoch, epoch1)
	printf ("%h %h %d -> %h %h %d\n", ra, dec, epoch, ra1, dec1, epoch1)
    else
	printf ("Missing coordinates\n")
    endif

    ===> table.dat <===
    12:22:31        31:10:15        1950
    13:52:44        10:21:32        1996.1
    14:52:44        11:21:32
    10:20:30

    cl> astcalc commands=example3.dat table=table.dat
    12:22:31.0 31:10:15.0 1950 -> 12:25:00.56 30:53:38.13 2000
    13:52:44.0 10:21:32.0 1996 -> 13:52:55.54 10:20:23.11 2000
    14:52:44.0 11:21:32.0 1900 -> 14:57:33.16 10:57:24.74 2000
    Missing coordinates

4. This complex example illustrates reading from CL parameters and image header keywords. It precesses coordinates to a standard epoch and computes the arc separation between the coordinates and a center coordinate. If the separation is less than a specified amount it prints the image name and additional information. This is the data file for the astradius script task.

    cl> type astutil$astradius.dat
    # Print images which are within a given radius in the sky.

    # Get parameters.
    racenter = clget ("astradius.racenter")
    deccenter = clget ("astradius.deccenter")
    epcenter = clget ("astradius.epcenter")
    radius = clget ("astradius.radius")
    ra = imget(clget("keywpars.ra"))
    dec = imget(clget("keywpars.dec"))

    epoch = imget(clget("keywpars.epoch"))
    if (str(epoch) == "" || real(epoch) == 0.)
	date = imget(clget("keywpars.date_obs"))
	ut = imget(clget("keywpars.ut"))
	epoch = epoch (date, ut)
    endif

    # Precess image coordinates to center epoch and compute separation.
    radec = precess (ra, dec, epoch, epcenter)
    ra1 = ra_precess (ra, dec, epoch, epcenter)
    dec1 = dec_precess (ra, dec, epoch, epcenter)
    sep = arcsep (racenter, deccenter, ra1, dec1)

    # Print result if within radius.
    if (sep < real (radius))
	printf ("%-15s %s %4d %s\n", $I, radec, sep, imget ("title"))
    endif
    cl> astcalc commands=astutil$astradius.dat images=dev$pix
    RA center (hours) (13:31): 
    DEC center (degrees) (47:00): 
    Epoch of center (2000.): 
    Radius in arc seconds (3600.): 
    dev$pix         13:29:56.16  47:11:37.9   2000.  955 m51  B  600s

REVISIONS

ASTCALC V2.11.2
Y2K update: The epoch, julday, and mst functions now take either the old or new FITS style date strings. The time argument is optional and if it is not specified the time from the date string is used and if neither time is present a value of 0h is used. New internal variables $GMD, $GMT, and $GMDT for the current time Greenwich time are defined.
ASTCALC V2.11
This task is new in this release.

SEE ALSO

astradius, asthedit, setairmass, setjd, asttimes, precess, observatory, hedit


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