DESCRIPTION · EXAMPLES · REVISIONS · SEE_ALSO
doslit -- Slit spectra data reduction task
Doslit extracts, sky subtracts, wavelength calibrates, and flux calibrates simple two dimensional slit spectra which have been processed to remove the detector characteristics; i.e. CCD images have been bias, dark count, and flat field corrected. It is primarily intended for spectrophotometry or radial velocities of stellar spectra with the spectra aligned with one of the image axes; i.e. the assumption is that extractions can be done by summing along image lines or columns. The alignment does not have to be precise but only close enough that the wavelength difference across the spectrum profiles is insignificant. The task is available in the ctioslit , kpnoslit , kpnocoude , and specred packages.
- List of object images to be processed. Previously processed spectra are ignored unless the redo flag is set or the update flag is set and dependent calibration data has changed. If the images contain the keyword IMAGETYP then only those with a value of "object" or "OBJECT" are used and those with a value of "comp" or "COMPARISON" are added to the list of arcs. Extracted spectra are ignored.
- arcs = "" (at least one if dispersion correcting)
- List of arc calibration spectra. These spectra are used to define the dispersion functions. The first spectrum is used to mark lines and set the dispersion function interactively and dispersion functions for all other arc spectra are derived from it. If the images contain the keyword IMAGETYP then only those with a value of "comp" or "COMPARISON" are used. All others are ignored as are extracted spectra.
- arctable = "" (optional) (refspectra)
- Table defining which arc spectra are to be assigned to which object spectra (see refspectra ). If not specified an assignment based on a header parameter, sparams.sort , such as the Julian date is made.
- standards = "" (at least one if flux calibrating)
- List of standard star spectra. The standard stars must have entries in the calibration database (package parameter caldir ).
- readnoise = "rdnoise", gain = "gain" (apsum)
- Read out noise in photons and detector gain in photons per data value. This parameter defines the minimum noise sigma and the conversion between photon Poisson statistics and the data number statistics. Image header keywords (case insensitive) may be specified to obtain the values from the image header.
- datamax = INDEF (apsum.saturation)
- The maximum data value which is not a cosmic ray. When cleaning cosmic rays and/or using variance weighted extraction very strong cosmic rays (pixel values much larger than the data) can cause these operations to behave poorly. If a value other than INDEF is specified then all data pixels in excess of this value will be excluded and the algorithms will yield improved results. This applies only to the object spectra and not the standard star or arc spectra. For more on this see the discussion of the saturation parameter in the apextract package.
- width = 5. (apedit)
- Approximate full width of the spectrum profiles. This parameter is used to define a width and error radius for the profile centering algorithm.
- crval = INDEF, cdelt = INDEF (autoidentify)
- These parameters specify an approximate central wavelength and dispersion. They may be specified as numerical values, INDEF, or image header keyword names whose values are to be used. If both these parameters are INDEF then the automatic identification will not be done.
- dispcor = yes
- Dispersion correct spectra? This may involve either defining a nonlinear dispersion coordinate system in the image header or resampling the spectra to uniform linear wavelength coordinates as selected by the parameter sparams.linearize .
- extcor = no
- Extinction correct the spectra?
- fluxcal = no
- Flux calibrate the spectra using standard star observations?
- resize = no (apresize)
- Resize the default aperture for each object based on the spectrum profile?
- clean = no (apsum)
- Detect and correct for bad pixels during extraction? This is the same as the clean option in the apextract package. If yes this also implies variance weighted extraction. In addition the datamax parameters can be useful.
- splot = no
- Plot the final spectra with the task splot ? In quicklook mode this is automatic and in non-quicklook mode it is queried.
- redo = no
- Redo operations previously done? If no then previously processed spectra in the object list will not be processed unless required by the update option.
- update = no
- Update processing of previously processed spectra if the dispersion reference image or standard star calibration data are changed?
- quicklook = no
- Extract and calibrate spectra with minimal interaction? In quicklook mode only the initial dispersion function solution and standard star setup are done interactively. Normally the splot option is set in this mode to produce an automatic final spectrum plot for each object. It is recommended that this mode not be used for final reductions.
- batch = yes
- Process spectra as a background or batch job provided there are no interactive steps remaining.
- listonly = no
- List processing steps but don't process?
- sparams = "" (pset)
- Name of parameter set containing additional processing parameters. This parameter is only for indicating the link to the parameter set sparams and should not be given a value. The parameter set may be examined and modified in the usual ways (typically with "epar sparams" or ":e sparams" from the parameter editor). The parameters are described below.
-- GENERAL PARAMETERS --
- line = INDEF, nsum = 10
- The dispersion line (line or column perpendicular to the dispersion axis) and number of adjacent lines (half before and half after unless at the end of the image) used in finding, resizing, editing, and tracing operations. A line of INDEF selects the middle of the image along the dispersion axis.
- extras = no (apsum)
- Include raw unweighted and uncleaned spectra, the background spectra, and the estimated sigmas in a three dimensional output image format. See the discussion in the apextract package for further information.
-- DEFAULT APERTURE LIMITS --
- lower = -3., upper = 3. (apdefault)
- Default lower and upper aperture limits relative to the aperture center. These limits are used when the apertures are first defined.
-- AUTOMATIC APERTURE RESIZING PARAMETERS --
- ylevel = 0.(apresize)
- Fraction of the peak to set aperture limits during automatic resizing.
-- TRACE PARAMETERS --
- t_step = (aptrace)
- Step along the dispersion axis between determination of the spectrum positions. Note the nsum parameter is also used to enhance the signal-to-noise at each step.
- t_function = "spline3", t_order = (aptrace)
- Default trace fitting function and order. The fitting function types are "chebyshev" polynomial, "legendre" polynomial, "spline1" linear spline, and "spline3" cubic spline. The order refers to the number of terms in the polynomial functions or the number of spline pieces in the spline functions.
- t_niterate = 1, t_low = 3., t_high = 3. (aptrace)
- Default number of rejection iterations and rejection sigma thresholds.
-- APERTURE EXTRACTION PARAMETERS --
- weights = "none" (apsum) (none|variance)
- Type of extraction weighting. Note that if the clean
set then the weights used are "variance" regardless of the weights
specified by this parameter. The choices are:
- The pixels are summed without weights except for partial pixels at the ends.
- The extraction is weighted by the variance based on the data values and a poisson/ccd model using the gain and readnoise parameters.
- pfit = "fit1d" (apsum and approfile) (fit1d|fit2d)
- Type of profile fitting algorithm to use. The "fit1d" algorithm is preferred except in cases of extreme tilt.
- lsigma = 3., usigma = 3. (apsum)
- Lower and upper rejection thresholds, given as a number of times the estimated sigma of a pixel, for cleaning.
-- DEFAULT BACKGROUND PARAMETERS --
- background = "fit" (apsum) (none|average|median|minimum|fit)
- Type of background subtraction. The choices are "none" for no background subtraction, "average" to average the background within the background regions, "median" to use the median in the background regions, "minimum" to use the minimum in the background regions, or "fit" to fit across the dispersion using the background within the background regions. Note that the "average" option does not do any medianing or bad pixel checking, something which is recommended. The fitting option is slower than the other options and requires additional fitting parameter.
- b_function = "legendre", b_order = (apsum)
- Default background fitting function and order. The fitting function types are "chebyshev" polynomial, "legendre" polynomial, "spline1" linear spline, and "spline3" cubic spline. The order refers to the number of terms in the polynomial functions or the number of spline pieces in the spline functions.
- b_sample = "-10:-6,6:10" (apsum)
- Default background sample. The sample is given by a set of colon separated ranges each separated by either whitespace or commas. The string "*" refers to all points. Note that the background coordinates are relative to the aperture center and not image pixel coordinates so the endpoints need not be integer. It is recommended that the background regions be examined and set interactively with the b key in the interactive aperture definition mode. This requires quicklook to be no.
- b_naverage = -(apsum)
- Default number of points to average or median. Positive numbers average that number of sequential points to form a fitting point. Negative numbers median that number, in absolute value, of sequential points. A value of 1 does no averaging and each data point is used in the fit.
- b_niterate = (apsum)
- Default number of rejection iterations. If greater than zero the fit is used to detect deviant fitting points and reject them before repeating the fit. The number of iterations of this process is given by this parameter.
- b_low_reject = 3., b_high_reject = 3. (apsum)
- Default background lower and upper rejection sigmas. If greater than zero points deviating from the fit below and above the fit by more than this number of times the sigma of the residuals are rejected before refitting.
-- ARC DISPERSION FUNCTION PARAMETERS --
- threshold = 10. (autoidentify/identify/reidentify)
- In order for a feature center to be determined the range of pixel intensities around the feature must exceed this threshold.
- coordlist = "linelists$idhenear.dat" (autoidentify/identify)
- Arc line list consisting of an ordered list of wavelengths. Some standard line lists are available in the directory "linelists$".
- match = -3. (autoidentify/identify)
- The maximum difference for a match between the dispersion function computed value and a wavelength in the coordinate list.
- fwidth = 4. (autoidentify/identify)
- Approximate full base width (in pixels) of arc lines.
- cradius = 10. (reidentify)
- Radius from previous position to reidentify arc line.
- i_function = "spline3", i_order = (autoidentify/identify)
- The default function and order to be fit to the arc wavelengths as a function of the pixel coordinate. The functions choices are "chebyshev", "legendre", "spline1", or "spline3".
- i_niterate = 0, i_low = 3.0, i_high = 3.(autoidentify/identify)
- Number of rejection iterations and sigma thresholds for rejecting arc lines from the dispersion function fits.
- refit = yes (reidentify)
- Refit the dispersion function? If yes and there is more than 1 line and a dispersion function was defined in the initial arc reference then a new dispersion function of the same type as in the reference image is fit using the new pixel positions. Otherwise only a zero point shift is determined for the revised fitted coordinates without changing the form of the dispersion function.
- addfeatures = no (reidentify)
- Add new features from a line list during each reidentification? This option can be used to compensate for lost features from the reference solution. Care should be exercised that misidentified features are not introduced.
-- AUTOMATIC ARC ASSIGNMENT PARAMETERS --
- select = "interp" (refspectra)
- Selection method for assigning wavelength calibration spectra.
Note that an arc assignment table may be used to override the selection
method and explicitly assign arc spectra to object spectra.
The automatic selection methods are:
- Average two reference spectra without regard to any sort or group parameters. If only one reference spectrum is specified then it is assigned with a warning. If more than two reference spectra are specified then only the first two are used and a warning is given. There is no checking of the group values.
- Select the nearest following spectrum in the reference list based on the sort and group parameters. If there is no following spectrum use the nearest preceding spectrum.
- Interpolate between the preceding and following spectra in the reference list based on the sort and group parameters. If there is no preceding and following spectrum use the nearest spectrum. The interpolation is weighted by the relative distances of the sorting parameter (see cautions in DESCRIPTION section).
- Match each input spectrum with the reference spectrum list in order. This overrides any group values.
- Select the nearest spectrum in the reference list based on the sort and group parameters.
- Select the nearest preceding spectrum in the reference list based on the sort and group parameters. If there is no preceding spectrum use the nearest following spectrum.
- sort = "jd" (setjd and refspectra)
- Image header keyword to be used as the sorting parameter for selection based on order. The header parameter must be numeric but otherwise may be anything. Common sorting parameters are times or positions.
- group = "ljd" (setjd and refspectra)
- Image header keyword to be used to group spectra. For those selection methods which use the group parameter the reference and object spectra must have identical values for this keyword. This can be anything but it must be constant within a group. Common grouping parameters are the date of observation "date-obs" (provided it does not change over a night) or the local Julian day number.
- time = no, timewrap = 17. (refspectra)
- Is the sorting parameter a 24 hour time? If so then the time origin for the sorting is specified by the timewrap parameter. This time should precede the first observation and follow the last observation in a 24 hour cycle.
-- DISPERSION CORRECTION PARAMETERS --
- linearize = yes (dispcor)
- Interpolate the spectra to a linear dispersion sampling? If yes the spectra will be interpolated to a linear or log linear sampling using the linear dispersion parameters specified by other parameters. If no the nonlinear dispersion function(s) from the dispersion function database are assigned to the input image world coordinate system and the spectral data is not interpolated. Note the interpolation function type is set by the package parameter interp .
- log = no (dispcor)
- Use linear logarithmic wavelength coordinates? Linear logarithmic wavelength coordinates have wavelength intervals which are constant in the logarithm of the wavelength.
- flux = yes (dispcor)
- Conserve the total flux during interpolation? If no the output spectrum is interpolated from the input spectrum at each output wavelength coordinate. If yes the input spectrum is integrated over the extent of each output pixel. This is slower than simple interpolation.
-- SENSITIVITY CALIBRATION PARAMETERS --
- s_function = "spline3", s_order = (sensfunc)
- Function and order used to fit the sensitivity data. The function types are "chebyshev" polynomial, "legendre" polynomial, "spline3" cubic spline, and "spline1" linear spline. Order of the sensitivity fitting function. The value corresponds to the number of polynomial terms or the number of spline pieces. The default values may be changed interactively.
- fnu = no (calibrate)
- The default calibration is into units of F-lambda. If fnu = yes then the calibrated spectrum will be in units of F-nu.
The following package parameters are used by this task. The default values may vary depending on the package.
- dispaxis = 2
- Default dispersion axis. The dispersion axis is 1 for dispersion running along image lines and 2 for dispersion running along image columns. If the image header parameter DISPAXIS is defined it has precedence over this parameter. The default value defers to the package parameter of the same name.
- extinction (standard, sensfunc, calibrate)
- Extinction file for a site. There are two extinction files in the NOAO standards library, onedstds$, for KPNO and CTIO. These extinction files are used for extinction and flux calibration.
- caldir (standard)
- Standard star calibration directory. A directory containing standard star data files. Note that the directory name must end with /. There are a number of standard star calibrations directories in the NOAO standards library, onedstds$.
- observatory = "observatory" (observatory)
- The default observatory to use for latitude dependent computations. If the OBSERVAT keyword in the image header it takes precedence over this parameter.
- interp = "poly5" (nearest|linear|poly3|poly5|spline3|sinc) (dispcor)
- Spectrum interpolation type used when spectra are resampled. The choices are:
nearest - nearest neighbor linear - linear poly3 - 3rd order polynomial poly5 - 5th order polynomial spline3 - cubic spline sinc - sinc function
- database = "database"
- Database name used by various tasks. This is a directory which is created if necessary.
- verbose = no
- Verbose output? If set then almost all the information written to the logfile is also written to the terminal except when the task is a background or batch process.
- logfile = "logfile"
- If specified detailed text log information is written to this file.
- plotfile = ""
- If specified metacode plots are recorded in this file for later review. Since plot information can become large this should be used only if really desired.
The environment parameter imtype is used to determine the extension of the images to be processed and created. This allows use with any supported image extension. For STF images the extension has to be exact; for example "d1h".
Doslit extracts, sky subtracts, wavelength calibrates, and flux calibrates simple two dimensional slit spectra which have been processed to remove the detector characteristics; i.e. CCD images have been bias, dark count, and flat field corrected. It is primarily intended for spectrophotometry or radial velocities of stellar spectra with the spectra aligned with one of the image axes; i.e. the assumption is that extractions can be done by summing along image lines or columns. The alignment does not have to be precise but only close enough that the wavelength difference across the spectrum profiles is insignificant. Extended objects requiring accurate geometric alignment over many pixels are reduced using the longslit package.
The task is a command language script which collects and combines the functions and parameters of many general purpose tasks to provide a single, complete data reduction path and a degree of guidance, automation, and record keeping. In the following description and in the parameter section the various general tasks used are identified. Further information about those tasks and their parameters may be found in their documentation. Doslit also simplifies and consolidates parameters from those tasks and keeps track of previous processing to avoid duplications.
The general organization of the task is to do the interactive setup steps, such as the reference dispersion function determination, first using representative calibration data and then perform the majority of the reductions automatically, possibly as a background process, with reference to the setup data. In addition, the task determines which setup and processing operations have been completed in previous executions of the task and, contingent on the redo and update options, skip or repeat some or all the steps.
The description is divided into a quick usage outline followed by details of the parameters and algorithms. The usage outline is provided as a checklist and a refresher for those familiar with this task and the component tasks. It presents only the default or recommended usage since there are many variations possible.
- The images are first processed with ccdproc for overscan, zero level, dark count, and flat field corrections.
- Set the doslit parameters with eparam . Specify the object images to be processed, one or more arc images, and one or more standard star images. If there are many object, arc, or standard star images you might prepare "@ files". Set the detector and data specific parameters. Select the processing options desired. Finally you might wish to review the sparams algorithm parameters though the defaults are probably adequate.
- Run the task. This may be repeated multiple times with different observations and the task will generally only do the setup steps once and only process new images. Queries presented during the execution for various interactive operations may be answered with "yes", "no", "YES", or "NO". The lower case responses apply just to that query while the upper case responses apply to all further such queries during the current execution and no further queries of that type will be made.
- Apertures are defined for all the standard and object images. This is only
done if there are no previous aperture definitions for the image.
The highest peak is found and centered and the default aperture limits
are set. If the resize option is set the aperture is resized by finding
the level which is 5% (the default) of the peak above local background.
If not using the quicklook option you now have the option
of entering the aperture editing loop to check the aperture position,
size, and background fitting parameters, and possibly add additional
apertures. This is step is highly recommended.
It is important to check the background regions with the b
key. To exit the background mode and then
to exit the review mode use q.
The spectrum positions at a series of points along the dispersion are measured and a function is fit to these positions. If not using the quicklook option the traced positions may be examined interactively and the fitting parameters adjusted. To exit the interactive fitting type q.
- If dispersion correction is selected the first arc in the arc list is extracted. The dispersion function is defined using the task autoidentify . The crval and cdelt parameters are used in the automatic identification. Whether or not the automatic identification is successful you will be shown the result of the arc line identification. If the automatic identification is not successful identify a few arc lines with with m and and use the l line list identification command to automatically add additional lines and fit the dispersion function. Check the quality of the dispersion function fit with f. When satisfied exit with q.
- If the flux calibration option is selected the standard star spectra are
processed (if not done previously). The images are
extracted and wavelength calibrated. The appropriate arc
calibration spectra are extracted and the dispersion function refit
using the arc reference spectrum as a starting point. The standard star
fluxes through the calibration bandpasses are compiled. You are queried
for the name of the standard star calibration data file.
After all the standard stars are processed a sensitivity function is determined using the interactive task sensfunc . Finally, the standard star spectra are extinction corrected and flux calibrated using the derived sensitivity function.
- The object spectra are now automatically extracted, wavelength calibrated, and flux calibrated.
- The option to examine the final spectra with splot may be given. To exit type q. In quicklook mode the spectra are plotted noninteractively with bplot .
- The final spectra will have the same name as the original 2D images with a ".ms" extension added.
Spectra and Data Files
The basic input consists of two dimensional slit object, standard star, and arc calibration spectra stored as IRAF images. The type of image format is defined by the environment parameter imtype . Only images with that extension will be processed and created. The raw CCD images must be processed to remove overscan, bias, dark count, and flat field effects. This is generally done using the ccdred package. Lines of constant wavelength should be closely aligned with one of the image axes though a small amount of misalignment only causes a small loss of resolution. For large misalignments one may use the rotate task. More complex geometric problems and observations of extended objects should be handled by the longslit package.
The arc spectra are comparison arc lamp observations (they must all be of the same type). The assignment of arc calibration exposures to object exposures is generally done by selecting the nearest in time and interpolating. However, the optional arc assignment table may be used to explicitly assign arc images to specific objects. The format of this file is described in task refspectra .
The final reduced spectra are recorded in one, two or three dimensional IRAF images. The images have the same name as the original images with an added ".ms" extension. Each line in the reduced image is a one dimensional spectrum with associated aperture, wavelength, and identification information. With a single aperture the image will be one dimensional and with multiple apertures the image will be two dimensional. When the extras parameter is set the images will be three dimensional (regardless of the number of apertures) and the lines in the third dimension contain additional information (see apsum for further details). These spectral formats are accepted by the one dimensional spectroscopy tasks such as the plotting tasks splot and specplot .
The package parameters set parameters which change infrequently and set the standard I/O functions. The extinction file is used for making extinction corrections and the standard star calibration directory is used for determining flux calibrations from standard star observations. The calibration directories contain data files with standard star fluxes and band passes. The available extinction files and flux calibration directories may be listed using the command:
cl> help onedstds
The extinction correction requires computation of an air mass using the task setairmass . The air mass computation needs information about the observation and, in particular, the latitude of the observatory. This is determined using the OBSERVAT image header keyword. If this keyword is not present the observatory parameter is used. See the task observatory for more on defining the observatory parameters.
The spectrum interpolation type is used whenever a spectrum needs to be resampled for linearization or performing operations between spectra with different sampling. The "sinc" interpolation may be of interest as an alternative but see the cautions given in onedspec.package .
The general direction in which the spectra run is specified by the dispersion axis parameter. Recall that ideally it is the direction of constant wavelength which should be aligned with an image axis and the dispersion direction may not be exactly aligned because atmospheric dispersion.
The verbose parameter selects whether to print everything which goes into the log file on the terminal. It is useful for monitoring what the doslit task does. The log and plot files are useful for keeping a record of the processing. A log file is highly recommended. A plot file provides a record of the apertures, traces, and extracted spectra but can become quite large. The plotfile is most conveniently viewed and printed with gkimosaic .
The input images are specified by image lists. The lists may be a list of explicit comma separate image names, @ files, or image templates using pattern matching against file names in the directory. To allow wildcard image lists to be used safely and conveniently the image lists are checked to remove extracted images (the .ms images) and to automatically identify object and arc spectra. Object and arc images are identified by the keyword IMAGETYP with values of "object", "OBJECT", "comp", or "COMPARISON" (the current practice at NOAO). If arc images are found in the object list they are transferred to the arc list while if object images are found in the arc list they are ignored. All other image types, such as biases, darks, or flat fields, are ignored. This behavior allows simply specifying all images with a wildcard in the object list with automatic selections of arc spectra or a wildcard in the arc list to automatically find the arc spectra. If the data lack the identifying information it is up to the user to explicitly set the proper lists.
The arc assignment table is a file which may be used to assign specific arc spectra to specific object and standard star spectra. For more on this option see refspectra .
The next set of parameters describe the noise characteristics and spectrum characteristics. The read out noise and gain are used when "cleaning" cosmic rays and when using variance or optimal weighting. These parameters must be fairly accurate. Note that these are the effective parameters and must be adjusted if previous processing has modified the pixel values; such as with an unnormalized flat field. The variance weighting and cosmic-ray cleanning are sensitive to extremely strong cosmic-rays; ones which are hundreds of times brighter than the spectrum. The datamax is used to set an upper limit for any real data. Any pixels above this value will be flagged as cosmic-rays and will not affect the extractions.
The profile width should be approximately the full width at the profile base. This parameter is used for centering and tracing of the spectrum profiles.
The approximate central wavelength and dispersion are used for the automatic identification of the arc reference. They may be specified as image header keywords or values. The INDEF values search the entire range of the coordinate reference file but the automatic line identification algorithm works much better and faster if approximate values are given.
The next set of parameters select the processing steps and options. The various calibration steps may be done simultaneously, that is at the same time as the basic extractions, or in separate executions of the task. Typically, all the desired operations are done at the same time. Dispersion correction requires at least one arc spectrum and flux calibration requires dispersion correction and at least one standard star observation.
The resize option resets the edges of the extraction aperture based on the profile for each object and standard star image. The default resizing is to the 5% point relative to the peak measured above the background. This allows following changes in the seeing. However, one should consider the consequences of this if attempting to flux calibrate the observations. Except in quicklook mode, the apertures for each object and standard star observation may be reviewed graphically and adjustments made to the aperture width and background regions.
The clean option invokes a profile fitting and deviant point rejection algorithm as well as a variance weighting of points in the aperture. See the next section for more about requirements to use this option.
Generally once a spectrum has been processed it will not be reprocessed if specified as an input spectrum. However, changes to the underlying calibration data can cause such spectra to be reprocessed if the update flag is set. The changes which will cause an update are a new arc reference image and new standard stars. If all input spectra are to be processed regardless of previous processing the redo flag may be used. Note that reprocessing clobbers the previously processed output spectra.
The final step is to plot the spectra if the splot option is selected. In non-quicklook mode there is a query which may be answered either in lower or upper case. The plotting uses the interactive task splot . In quicklook mode the plot appears noninteractively using the task bplot .
The quicklook option provides a simpler, less interactive, mode. In quicklook mode a single aperture is defined using default parameters without interactive aperture review or trace fitting and the splot option selects a noninteractive plot to be shown at the end of processing of each object and standard star spectrum. While the algorithms used in quicklook mode are nearly the same as in non-quicklook mode and the final results may be the same it is recommended that the greater degree of monitoring and review in non-quicklook mode be used for careful final reductions.
The batch processing option allows object spectra to be processed as a background or batch job. This will occur only if the interactive splot option is not active; either not set, turned off during processing with "NO", or in quicklook mode. In batch processing the terminal output is suppressed.
The listonly option prints a summary of the processing steps which will be performed on the input spectra without actually doing anything. This is useful for verifying which spectra will be affected if the input list contains previously processed spectra. The listing does not include any arc spectra which may be extracted to dispersion calibrate an object spectrum.
The last parameter (excluding the task mode parameter) points to another parameter set for the algorithm parameters. The default parameter set is called sparams . The algorithm parameters are discussed further in the next section.
Algorithms and Algorithm Parameters
This section summarizes the various algorithms used by the doslit task and the parameters which control and modify the algorithms. The algorithm parameters available to you are collected in the parameter set sparams . These parameters are taken from the various general purpose tasks used by the doslit processing task. Additional information about these parameters and algorithms may be found in the help for the actual task executed. These tasks are identified below. The aim of this parameter set organization is to collect all the algorithm parameters in one place separate from the processing parameters and include only those which are relevant for slit data. The parameter values can be changed from the defaults by using the parameter editor,
cl> epar sparamsor simple typing sparams . The parameter editor can also be entered when editing the doslit parameters by typing :e when positioned at the sparams parameter.
The first operation is to define the extraction apertures, which include the aperture width, background regions, and position dependence with wavelength, for the input slit spectra and, if flux calibration is selected, the standard star spectra. This is done only for spectra which do not have previously defined apertures unless the redo option is set to force all definitions to be redone. Thus, apertures may be defined separately using the apextract tasks. This is particularly useful if one needs to use reference images to define apertures for very weak spectra which are not well centered or traced by themselves.
Initially a single spectrum is found and a default aperture defined automatically. If the resize parameter is set the aperture width is adjusted to a specified point on the spectrum profile (see apresize ). If not in "quicklook" mode (set by the quicklook parameter) a query is printed to select whether to inspect and modify the aperture and background aperture definitions using the commands described for apedit . This option allows adding apertures for other objects on the slit and adjusting background regions to avoid contaminating objects. The query may be answered in lower case for a single spectrum or in upper case to permanently set the response for the duration of the task execution. This convention for query responses is used throughout the task. It is recommended that quicklook only be used for initial quick extractions and calibration and that for final reductions one at least review the aperture definitions and traces.
The initial spectrum finding and aperture definitions are done at a specified line or column. The positions of the spectrum at a set of other lines or columns is done next and a smooth function is fit to define the aperture centers at all points in the image. In non-quicklook mode the user has the option to review and adjust the function fitting parameters and delete bad position determinations. As with the initial aperture review there is a query which may be answered either in lower or upper case.
The above steps are all performed using tasks from the apextract package and parameters from the sparams parameters. As a quick summary, the dispersion direction of the spectra are determined from the package dispaxis parameter if not defined in the image header. The default line or column for finding the object position on the slit and the number of image lines or columns to sum are set by the line and nsum parameters. A line of INDEF (the default) selects the middle of the image. The automatic finding algorithm is described for the task apfind and is basically finds the strongest peak. The default aperture size, background parameters, and resizing are described in the tasks apdefault and apresize and the parameters used are also described there. The tracing is done as described in aptrace and consists of stepping along the image using the specified t_step parameter. The function fitting uses the icfit commands with the other parameters from the tracing section.
The actual extraction of the spectra is done by summing across the fixed width apertures at each point along the dispersion. The default is to simply sum the pixels using partial pixels at the ends. There is an option to weight the sum based on a Poisson variance model using the readnoise and gain detector parameters. Note that if the clean option is selected the variance weighted extraction is used regardless of the weights parameter. The sigma thresholds for cleaning are also set in the sparams parameters.
The cleaning and variance weighting options require knowing the effective (i.e. accounting for any image combining) read out noise and gain. These numbers need to be adjusted if the image has been processed such that the intensity scale has a different origin (such as applying a separate background subtraction operation) or scaling (such as caused by unnormalized flat fielding). These options also require using background subtraction if the profile does not go to zero. For optimal extraction and cleaning to work it is recommended that any flat fielding be done using normalized flat fields (as is done in ccdproc ) and using background subtraction if there is any appreciable sky. For further discussion of cleaning and variance weighted extraction see apvariance and approfiles as well as apsum .
Background sky subtraction is done during the extraction based on background regions and parameters defined by the default parameters or changed during the interactive setting of the apertures. The background subtraction options are to do no background subtraction, subtract the average, median, or minimum of the pixels in the background regions, or to fit a function and subtract the function from under the extracted object pixels. The background regions are specified in pixels from the aperture center and follow changes in center of the spectrum along the dispersion. The syntax is colon separated ranges with multiple ranges separated by a comma or space. The background fitting uses the icfit routines which include medians, iterative rejection of deviant points, and a choice of function types and orders. Note that it is important to use a method which rejects cosmic rays such as using either medians over all the background regions (background = "median") or median samples during fitting (b_naverage < -1). The background subtraction algorithm and options are described in greater detail in apsum and apbackground .
If dispersion correction is not selected, dispcor =no, then the object spectra are simply extracted. The extracted spectra may be plotted by setting the splot option. This produces a query and uses the interactive splot task in non-quicklook mode and uses the noninteractive bplot task in quicklook mode.
Dispersion corrections are applied to the extracted spectra if the dispcor processing parameter is set. There are three basic steps involved; determining the dispersion functions relating pixel position to wavelength, assigning the appropriate dispersion function to a particular observation, and either storing the nonlinear dispersion function in the image headers or resampling the spectra to evenly spaced pixels in wavelength.
The first arc spectrum in the arc list is used to define the reference dispersion solution. It is extracted at middle of the image with no tracing. Note extractions of arc spectra are not background subtracted. The task autoidentify is attempts to define the dispersion function automatically using the crval and cdelt parameters. Whether or not it is successful the user is presented with the interactive identification graph. The automatic identifications can be reviewed and a new solution or corrections to the automatic solution may be performed.
The arc dispersion function parameters are for autoidentify and it's related partner reidentify . The parameters define a line list for use in automatically assigning wavelengths to arc lines, a centering width (which should match the line widths at the base of the lines), the dispersion function type and orders, parameters to exclude bad lines from function fits, and defining whether to refit the dispersion function as opposed to simply determining a zero point shift. The defaults should generally be adequate and the dispersion function fitting parameters may be altered interactively. One should consult the help for the two tasks for additional details of these parameters and the interactive operation of autoidentify .
The extracted reference arc spectrum is then dispersion corrected. If the spectra are to be linearized, as set by the linearize parameter, the default linear wavelength parameters are printed and you have the option to adjust them. The dispersion system defined at this point will be applied automatically to all other spectra as they are dispersion corrected.
Once the reference dispersion function is defined other arc spectra are extracted as required by the object spectra. The assignment of arcs is done either explicitly with an arc assignment table (parameter arctable ) or based on a header parameter such as a time. This assignments are made by the task refspectra . When two arcs are assigned to an object spectrum an interpolation is done between the two dispersion functions. This makes an approximate correction for steady drifts in the dispersion.
The tasks setjd and setairmass are automatically run on all spectra. This computes and adds the header parameters for the Julian date (JD), the local Julian day number (LJD), the universal time (UTMIDDLE), and the air mass at the middle of the exposure. The default arc assignment is to use the Julian date grouped by the local Julian day number. The grouping allows multiple nights of data to be correctly assigned at the same time.
The assigned arc spectra are then extracted using the object aperture definitions (but without background subtraction or cleaning) so that the same pixels on the detector are used. The extracted arc spectra are then reidentified automatically against the reference arc spectrum. Some statistics of the reidentification are printed (if not in batch mode) and the user has the option of examining the lines and fits interactively if not in quicklook mode. The task which does the reidentification is called reidentify .
The last step of dispersion correction is setting the dispersion of the object image from the arc images. There are two choices here. If the linearize parameter is not set the nonlinear dispersion function is stored in the image header. Other IRAF tasks interpret this information when dispersion coordinates are needed for plotting or analysis. This has the advantage of not requiring the spectra to be interpolated and the disadvantage that the dispersion information is only understood by IRAF tasks and cannot be readily exported to other analysis software.
If the linearize parameter is set then the spectra are resampled to a linear dispersion relation either in wavelength or the log of the wavelength using the dispersion coordinate system defined previously for the arc reference spectrum.
The linearization algorithm parameters allow selecting the interpolation function type, whether to conserve flux per pixel by integrating across the extent of the final pixel, and whether to linearize to equal linear or logarithmic intervals. The latter may be appropriate for radial velocity studies. The default is to use a fifth order polynomial for interpolation, to conserve flux, and to not use logarithmic wavelength bins. These parameters are described fully in the help for the task dispcor which performs the correction.
Flux calibration consists of an extinction correction and an instrumental sensitivity calibration. The extinction correction only depends on the extinction function defined by the package parameter extinct and determination of the airmass from the header parameters (the air mass is computed by setairmass as mentioned earlier). The sensitivity calibration depends on a sensitivity calibration spectrum determined from standard star observations for which there are tabulated absolute fluxes. The task that applies both the extinction correction and sensitivity calibration to each extracted object spectrum is calibrate . Consult the manual page for this task for more information.
Generation of the sensitivity calibration spectrum is done before processing any object spectra since it has two interactive steps and requires all the standard star observations. The first step is tabulating the observed fluxes over the same bandpasses as the calibrated absolute fluxes. The standard star tabulations are done after each standard star is extracted and dispersion corrected. You are asked for the name of the standard star as tabulated in the absolute flux data files in the directory caldir defined by the package parameters. The tabulation of the standard star observations over the standard bandpasses is done by the task standard . The tabulated data is stored in the file std . Note that if the redo flag is not set any new standard stars specified in subsequent executions of doslit are added to the previous data in the data file, otherwise the file is first deleted. Modification of the tabulated standard star data, such as by adding new stars, will cause any spectra in the input list which have been previously calibrated to be reprocessed if the update flag is set.
After the standard star calibration bandpass fluxes are tabulated the information from all the standard stars is combined to produce a sensitivity function for use by calibrate . The sensitivity function determination is interactive and uses the task sensfunc . This task allows fitting a smooth sensitivity function to the ratio of the observed to calibrated fluxes verses wavelength. The types of manipulations one needs to do include deleting bad observations, possibly removing variable extinction (for poor data), and possibly deriving a revised extinction function. This is a complex operation and one should consult the manual page for sensfunc . The sensitivity function is saved as a one dimensional spectrum with the name sens . Deletion of this image will also cause reprocessing to occur if the update flag is set.
1. The following example uses artificial data and may be executed at the terminal (with IRAF V2.10). This is similar to the sequence performed by the test procedure "demos doslit". The output is with the verbose package parameter set. Normally users use eparam rather than the long command line. All parameters not shown for sparams and doslit are the default.
cl> demos mkdoslit Creating example longslit in image demoarc1 ... Creating example longslit in image demoobj1 ... Creating example longslit in image demostd1 ... Creating example longslit in image demoarc2 ... cl> doslit demoobj1 arcs=demoarc1,demoarc2 stand=demostd1 \ >>> extcor=yes, fluxcal=yes resize=yes Searching aperture database ... Finding apertures ... Jan 17 15:52: FIND - 1 apertures found for demoobj1 Resizing apertures ... Jan 17 15:52: APRESIZE - 1 apertures resized for demoobj1 (-3.50, 3.49) Edit apertures for demostd1? (yes): <Check aperture and background definitions ('b'). Exit with 'q'> Fit traced positions for demostd1 interactively? (yes): Tracing apertures ... Fit curve to aperture 1 of demostd1 interactively (yes): <Exit with 'q'> Searching aperture database ... Finding apertures ... Jan 17 15:54: FIND - 1 apertures found for demostd1 Resizing apertures ... Jan 17 15:54: APRESIZE - 1 apertures resized for demostd1 (-3.35, 3.79) Edit apertures for demostd1? (yes): <Exit with 'q'> Fit traced positions for demostd1 interactively? (yes): n Tracing apertures ... Jan 17 15:55: TRACE - 1 apertures traced in demostd1. Jan 17 15:55: DATABASE - 1 apertures for demostd1 written to database Extract arc reference image demoarc1 Searching aperture database ... Finding apertures ... Jan 17 15:55: FIND - 1 apertures found for demoarc1 Jan 17 15:55: DATABASE - 1 apertures for demoarc1 written to database Extracting apertures ... Jan 17 15:55: EXTRACT - Aperture 1 from demoarc1 --> demoarc1.ms Determine dispersion solution for demoarc1 <A dispersion function is automatically determined.> <Type 'f' to see the fit residuals> <Type 'd' to delete the two deviant lines> <Type 'f' to refit with the bad points deleted> <Type 'q' to quit fit and then 'q' to exit> demoarc1.ms.imh: w1 = 4204.18..., w2 = 7355.37..., dw = 6.16..., nw = 512 Change wavelength coordinate assignments? (yes|no|NO) (no): n Extract standard star spectrum demostd1 Searching aperture database ... Jan 17 15:59: DATABASE - 1 apertures read for demostd1 from database Extracting apertures ... Jan 17 15:59: EXTRACT - Aperture 1 from demostd1 --> demostd1.ms Assign arc spectra for demostd1 [demostd1] refspec1='demoarc1 0.403' [demostd1] refspec2='demoarc2 0.597' Extract and reidentify arc spectrum demoarc1 Searching aperture database ... Jan 17 15:59: DATABASE - 1 apertures read for demostd1 from database Jan 17 15:59: DATABASE - 1 apertures for demoarc1 written to database Extracting apertures ... Jan 17 15:59: EXTRACT - Aperture 1 from demoarc1 --> demostd1demoarc1.ms REIDENTIFY: NOAO/IRAF V2.10BETA valdes@puppis Fri 15:59:21 17-Jan-92 Reference image = demoarc1.ms, New image = demostd1..., Refit = yes Image Data Found Fit Pix Shift User Shift Z Shift RMS demo... 48/48 48/48 2.22E-4 0.00184 5.09E-7 0.225 Fit dispersion function interactively? (no|yes|NO|YES) (yes): demoarc1.ms: w1 = 4211.81, w2 = 7353.58, dw = 6.148, nw = 512, log = no Change wavelength coordinate assignments? (yes|no|NO): N demo... 48/48 48/48 2.22E-4 0.00184 5.09E-7 0.225 Extract and reidentify arc spectrum demoarc2 Searching aperture database ... Jan 17 16:01: DATABASE - 1 apertures read for demostd1 from database Jan 17 16:01: DATABASE - 1 apertures for demoarc2 written to database Extracting apertures ... Jan 17 16:01: EXTRACT - Aperture 1 from demoarc2 --> demostd1demoarc2.ms REIDENTIFY: NOAO/IRAF V2.10BETA valdes@puppis Fri 16:01:54 17-Jan-92 Reference image = demoarc1.ms, New image = demostd1..., Refit = yes Image Data Found Fit Pix Shift User Shift Z Shift RMS demo... 48/48 48/48 0.00302 0.0191 3.82E-6 0.244 Dispersion correct demostd1 demostd1.ms: ap = 1, w1 = 4204.181, w2 = 7355.375, dw = 6.16..., nw = 512 Compile standard star fluxes for demostd1 Star name in calibration list: hz2 <in kpnoslit package> demostd1.ms.imh: Example artificial long slit image Compute sensitivity function Fit aperture 1 interactively? (no|yes|NO|YES) (no|yes|NO|YES) (yes): <Exit with 'q'> Sensitivity function for all apertures --> sens Flux and/or extinction calibrate standard stars [demostd1.ms.imh]: Example artificial long slit image Extinction correction applied Flux calibration applied Extract object spectrum demoobj1 Searching aperture database ... Jan 17 16:05: DATABASE - 1 apertures read for demoobj1 from database Extracting apertures ... Jan 17 16:05: EXTRACT - Aperture 1 from demoobj1 --> demoobj1.ms Assign arc spectra for demoobj1 [demoobj1] refspec1='demoarc1 0.403' [demoobj1] refspec2='demoarc2 0.597' Extract and reidentify arc spectrum demoarc1 Searching aperture database ... Jan 17 16:05: DATABASE - 1 apertures read for demoobj1 from database Jan 17 16:05: DATABASE - 1 apertures for demoarc1 written to database Extracting apertures ... Jan 17 16:05: EXTRACT - Aperture 1 from demoarc1 --> demoobj1demoarc1.ms REIDENTIFY: NOAO/IRAF V2.10BETA valdes@puppis Fri 16:05:39 17-Jan-92 Reference image = demoarc1.ms, New image = demoobj1..., Refit = yes Image Data Found Fit Pix Shift User Shift Z Shift RMS demo... 48/48 48/48 -2.49E-4 -0.00109 -1.1E-7 0.227 Extract and reidentify arc spectrum demoarc2 Searching aperture database ... Jan 17 16:05: DATABASE - 1 apertures read for demoobj1 from database Jan 17 16:05: DATABASE - 1 apertures for demoarc2 written to database Extracting apertures ... Jan 17 16:05: EXTRACT - Aperture 1 from demoarc2 --> demoobj1demoarc2.ms REIDENTIFY: NOAO/IRAF V2.10BETA valdes@puppis Fri 16:05:42 17-Jan-92 Reference image = demoarc1.ms, New image = demoobj1..., Refit = yes Image Data Found Fit Pix Shift User Shift Z Shift RMS demo... 48/48 48/48 0.00266 0.0169 3.46E-6 0.24 Dispersion correct demoobj1 demoobj1.ms: ap = 1, w1 = 4204.181, w2 = 7355.375, dw = 6.16..., nw = 512 Extinction correct demoobj1 Flux calibrate demoobj1 [demoobj1.ms.imh]: Example artificial long slit image Extinction correction applied Flux calibration applied
2. To redo the above:
cl> doslit demoobj1 arcs=demoarc1,demoarc2 stand=demostd1 \ >>> extcor=yes, fluxcal=yes resize=yes redo+
- DOSLIT V2.11
- The initial arc line identifications is done with the automatic line identification algorithm.
- DOSLIT V2.10.3
- The usual output WCS format is "equispec". The image format type to be processed is selected with the imtype environment parameter. The dispersion axis parameter is now a package parameter. Images will only be processed if the have the CCDPROC keyword. A datamax parameter has been added to help improve cosmic ray rejection. The arc reference is no longer taken from the center of the image but using the first object aperture. A bug which alphabetized the arc list was fixed.
apbackground, apedit, apfind, approfiles, aprecenter, apresize, apsum, aptrace, apvariance, calibrate, ccdred, center1d, ctioslit, dispcor, echelle.doecslit, icfit, autoidentify, identify, kpnocoude, kpnoslit, specred, observatory, onedspec.package, refspectra, reidentify, sensfunc, setairmass, setjd, splot, standard