epoch -- Convert time between different formats.
This task offers a convenient tool to convert time data between several formats. It can be used interactively to do simple jobs such as finding the Julian date of a particular civil calendar date, or can be incorporated in an IRAF script to do time conversions for larger amount of data.
This task covers a large range of different time formats. Most time notations can be classified into three general categories:
- 1) A qualifier followed by one or more arguments, e.g., JD2440000 where JD is the qualifier and 2440000 is the argument.
- (2) Civil calendar, e.g., Nov 11, 1953, or 11/20/79.
- (3) A word, e.g., today or now.
Some of the features of this task are:
- (1) Case insensitivity, e.g., the following are equivalent: (a) JD or jd, (b) NOVEMBER, november, or November.
- (2) In most cases, input strings can be "sloppy", e.g., there can be one or more spaces or tabs or no space at all between the qualifier and its argument.
- (3) Liberal use of delimiters is allowed, e.g., March 28, 1953 can be specified as "Mar 28, 1953", or "Mar. 28, 1953", or "Mar-28-1953".
- (4) Results are stored as CL parameters and displayed on the terminal, making it easy to use them in scripts or CL variables.
Civil calendar dates can be specified using virtually any punctuation---including dashes---to separate day, month, and year. Because the dash is the same character as the minus sign, the minus sign loses its arithmetic meaning, and negative day, month or year can not be used in input strings.
The suffix BC (or B.C.) can be used in its usual meaning, e.g., 1 BC = 0 AD, 2 BC = -1 AD, etc. Minus signs retains their arithmetic significance for input strings of the first category (qualifier and argument). The suffix AM or PM is also supported.
There is a limit on how far into the past or future this task can go. The limit is about +/- 2.1 billion days or +/- 5.8 million years from now. If the input argument exceeds this limit, an error message will be issued.
- instring [string]
- Input time.
- (qualifier) [string]
- The qualifier used to specify time strings of the first category
(see description above). When this parameter is set, the input string
needs only to include the argument, for example:
epoch "JD 2460000" is equivalent to epoch "2460000" qualifier="jd" You can also have redundant qualifier: epoch "JD2460000" qualifier="jd" but NOT inconsistent qualifiers such as: epoch "jd2460000" qualifier="dmf"
The following values are allowed for the qualifier:
(1) JD, Julian date.
(2) MJD, modified Julian date, i.e., MJD = JD - 2400000.5.
(3) J, Julian epoch, i.e., 2000.0 + (JD-2451545) / 365.25.
(4) B, Besselian epoch, i.e., 1900.0 + (JD-2415020.31352) / 365.242198781.
(5) DMF, number of seconds since January 1, 1980, 0h.
(6) SMS, yyyy.ddd hh:mm:ss.
(7) CDBS, the calibration data base time format, yyyymmdd:hhmmss.ss. The number of digits must be preserved, i.e., if the month is a single digit, a zero must be filled in for the first month digit. Information after the colon (including the colon) is optional.
(8) GEISUT, this qualifier needs two arguments that represent the integer representations of UTC found in the standard header packet file header. The first argument is UTCO1 (bytes 5-8 of UTCO) second is UTCO2 (byte 1-4 of UTCO). The two arguments must be separated by at least one space or tab.
(9) EPCHTIME, number of seconds since January 1, 1985, 0h.
(10) TIMEFFEC, same as EPCHTIME.
(11) OBSSTRTT, number of seconds since January 0, 1985, 0h.
(12) ENG, the engineering format, YMDhhmm, Y is the year. It has the range of 1-9 and A-Z where 1 = 1981 and A = 1990, B = 1991, Z = 2015, etc. M is the month. It has the range of 1-9 and A-C where 1 = January and A = October. D is the day. It has the range of 1-9 and A-V where 1 = 1st and A = 10th. Hours are two digits (00-24), so are minutes (00-60). In the output, if the year is out of range, it prints a "*".
- (dmy_style = "mdy") [string, Allowed values: mdy | dmy | ymd]
- The order of day, month, year if the input time string is of the second category. The default is the American style (month, day, year).
- (add= yes) [boolean]
- Add 1900 to the year if it is less than 100?
- (timezone = "gmt") [string]
- This parameter takes effect only when instring="now". The value of this
parameter should be set to the time zone of the COMPUTER you are
that the output time is UT.
Acceptable values are "EST", "EDT", "CST", "CDT", "MST", "MDT", "PST", "PDT", or any real number. When using numbers, time zones are in hours and are positive if west of Greenwich, e.g., EST (Eastern standard time) is +5 and China is -8.
- (calendar = "ns") [string, Allowed values: ns | os]
- Specifies whether the input time string is Gregorian calendar ("ns", new
style) or Julian calendar ("os", old style).
Pope Gregory XIII introduced the Gregorian calendar in 1582 AD. October 4, 1582 was followed by October 15. England and the American colonies did not change to the new system until 1752. The English Parliament decreed that September 2, 1752 was followed by September 14. This task does not include the English custom that the year started on March 25 before 1752. It also should be mentioned that there is a slight difference between the Eastern Orthodox and Gregorian calendar but the two calendars will not diverge until 2800 AD.
- (printout = "date") [string]
- Format used to display dates. Allowed values are: "date", "jd", "mjd", "dmf", "sms", "os", "eng", or "all". Multiple formats can be specified by separating formats with a comma (or other punctuation). If no value is specified (or an unrecognized value is specified) no output will be produced.
- (mjd) [real]
- Output modified Julian date.
- (jd) [real]
- Output Julian date.
- (date) [string]
- Output time in Gregorian calendar.
- (date_os) [string]
- Output time in Julian calendar.
- (dmf) [real]
- Output number of seconds since January 1, 1980, 0h.
- (sms) [string]
- Output time in year, number of days since January 0, and hour, minute, second.
- (eng) [string]
- Output time the engineering time format.
1. Time strings with a qualifier:
epoch J1990 epoch "mjd 54000.3 " epoch dmf330000000 print="mjd dmf" epoch 2445678.1234 qual="JD" epoch "eng ab12345"
2. Time strings of various year-month-day combinations and formats:
epoch "Nov-3-1983 5:32 PM" epoch "Nov-3-1983 17:32" print="mjd,sms" epoch "Nov. 20, 1979" print="all" epoch "September 20, 1964" epoch "9-28-555 B.C." print="jd+os" epoch 20-8-50 dmy="dmy" epoch 1990/4/24 dmy="ymd" print="sms; mjd"
3. Time strings using English word as the argument:
epoch now time="est" epoch now time="+3.5" epoch today print="all"