CONTINUUM_MODE_DESCRIPTION · SPECTRUM_MODE_DESCRIPTION · INTERPOLATION
DEBLENDING · PEAK_FITTING/FINDING_ALGORITHMS · VELOCITY_COMPUTATION_ALGORITHM
CURSOR_KEYS_AND_COLON_COMMANDS_SUMMARY · EXAMPLES · SEE_ALSO
fxcor -- compute radial velocities via Fourier cross correlation
fxcor objects templates
- The list of image names for the input object spectra.
- The list of image names that will be used as templates for the cross correlation. This list need not match the object list. All pairs between the two lists will be correlated.
- apertures = "*"
- List of apertures to be correlated in echelle and multispec format spectra. This parameter is used for both the object and reference spectra if both spectra are two dimensional, otherwise the aperture list applies to the object only if the the template is one-dimensional. Individual apertures from a two-dimensional template may be extracted to 1-D using the onedspec.scopy task, and these new images may then be used in the template list as separate images. (See the examples for how this may be done). The default of * means to process all of the apertures in the spectrum. Note that the sample regions named by the osample and rsample parameters will apply to all apertures.
- cursor = ""
- Graphics cursor input.
DATA PREPARATION PARAMETERS
- continuum = "both"
- Continuum subtract the spectra prior to correlation? Possible values for this parameter are any of the strings (or abbreviations) "object" (for object spectrum only), "template" (for template spectrum only), "both" for continuum flattening both object and template spectra, or "none" for flattening neither spectrum. The continpars pset is used to specify the continuum fitting parameters.
- filter = "none"
- Fourier filter the spectra prior to correlation? Possible values for this parameter are any of the strings (or abbreviations) "object" (for object spectrum only), "template" (for template spectrum only), "both" for fourier filtering both object and template spectra, or "none" for filtering neither spectrum. The filtpars pset holds the parameters for the filtering (filter type and width).
- rebin = "smallest"
- Rebin to which spectrum dispersion? If the input dispersions are not equal prior to the correlation, one of the two spectra in the pair will be rebinned according to the rebin parameter. Possible values are "smallest" (to rebin to the smaller of the two values), "largest" (to rebin to the larger of the two values), "object" (to force the template to always be rebinned to the object dispersion), and "template" (to force the object to always be rebinned to the template dispersion). Input spectra must be linearly corrected. Support for non-linear input dispersions is not included in this release.
- pixcorr = "no"
- Do a pixel-only correlation, ignoring any dispersion information? If this parameter is set to yes , then regardless of whether dispersion information is present in the image headers, the correlation will be done without rebinning the data to a log-linear dispersion. This option is useful when pixel shifts, not velocities, are the desired output.
- osample = "*"
- Sample regions of the object spectrum to be used in the correlation specified in pixels if the first character is a p, or angstroms if the first character is an a. The default (i.e. no a or p as the first character) if a range is provided, is a range specified in angstroms. This string value will be updated in an interactive session as sample regions are re-selected in spectrum mode. The default, *, is the entire spectrum. The region is specified as a starting value, a -, and an ending value. If the specified range is out of bounds, the endpoints will be modified to the nearest boundary, or else the entire spectrum will be correlated if the whole range is out of bounds.
- rsample = "*"
- Sample regions of the template spectrum to be used in the correlation specified in pixels if the first character is a p, or angstroms if the first character is an a. The default (i.e. no a or p as the first character) if a range is provided, is a range specified in angstroms. This string value will be updated in an interactive session as sample regions are re-selected in spectrum mode. The default, *, is the entire spectrum. The region is specified as a starting value, a -, and an ending value. If the specified range is out of bounds, the endpoints will be modified to the nearest boundary, or else the entire spectrum will be correlated if the whole range is out of bounds.
- apodize = 0.2
- Fraction of endpoints to apodize with a cosine bell when preparing the data prior to the FFT.
CORRELATION PEAK FITTING PARAMETERS
- function = "gaussian"
- Function used to find the center and width of the correlation peak. Possible choices are "gaussian", "parabola", "lorentzian", "center1d", or "sinc". If a center1d fit is selected, then only the center is determined. A "sinc" function uses a sinc interpolator to find the maximum of the peak by interpolating the points selectes. The FWHM calculation in this case is computed empirically by finding the half power point according to the computed peak height and the background level. No FWHM will be computed of the background is not set. The function fitting options all compute the FWHM from the fitted coefficients of the function.
- width = INDEF
- Width of the fitting region in pixels. The fitting weights are zero at the endpoints so the width should be something like the expected full width. If INDEF, then the width is set by the height and peak parameters. If other than INDEF, this parameter will override the height and peak parameters.
- height = 0.
- The width of the fitting region is defined by where the correlation function crosses this height starting from the peak. The height is specified as either a normalized correlation level (this is like the y interactive key) or normalized to the peak. The type of level is selected by the peak parameter.
- peak = no
- Measure the height parameter relative to the correlation peak value rather than as a normalized correlation level? If yes, then height is a fraction of the peak height with an assumed base of zero.
- minwidth = 3., maxwidth = 21.
- The minimum and maximum widths allowed when the width is determined from the height.
- weights = 1.
- Power of distance defining the fitting weights. The points used
in fitting the correlation peak are weighted by a power of the
distance from the center as given by the equation
weight = 1 - (distance / (width/2)) ** \fIweights\fRNote that a weight parameter of zero is equivalent to uniform weights. The center1d fitting algorithm uses it's own weighting function.
- background = 0.0
- Background level, in normalized correlation units, for a Gaussian or Lorentzian fitting function. If set to INDEF, the background is a free parameter in the fit.
- window = INDEF
- Size of the window in the correlation plot. The peak will be displayed with a window centered on the peak maximum and two times window pixels wide if no dispersion information is present in the image header. If dispersion information is present, window is specified in Km/s. A value of INDEF results in a default window size of 20 pixels. If the window proves to be too small for the number of points to be fit selected with the width , height , and/or peak parameters, a message will be written to the ".log" file and/or screen explaing that points outside the window bounds were used in the fit. The user may wish to review this fit or increase the window size.
- wincenter = INDEF
- Center of the peak search window specified in pixel lags if no dispersion information is present, or specified in Km/s if dispersion information is present. If set to the default INDEF, the maximum peak in the cross-correlation function will be fit by default. If set to other than INDEF, the maximum peak within a window centered on wincenter and two times window lags wide will be used. Note that this parameter can be used to constrain the velocities computed to a certain range in non-interactive mode.
- output = ""
- Name of the file to which output will be written. If no file name is given then no log files will be kept, but the user will be queried for a file name if a write operation is performed. Tabular text output will have a ".txt" suffix appended to the output name, a verbose description of each fit will have ".log" suffix appended and will be written only if the verbose parameter is set, and the graphics metacode file will be appended with a ".gki" suffix. (NOTE: Image names will be truncated to 10 characters in the output file because of space considerations. Verbose output logs will truncate the image names to 24 characters. Object names are similarly truncated to 15 characters. If a relative velocity is calculated with a redshift of more than 0.2, output will be redshift z values rather than velocities in Km/s.)
- verbose = "long"
- Set level of verbosity and types of files to create. The verbose
parameter is an enumerated string whose values determine the number and type
of output files created. Up to three files are created: the ".txt", ".log",
and ".gki" files (see the description for the output
Possible values for verbose
and the files created are as follows:
Value: Files Created: short (an 80-char .txt file and a .gki file) long (a 125-char .txt file, a .log file, a .gki file) nolog (a 125-char .txt file and a .gki file) nogki (a 125-char .txt file and a .log file) txtonly (a 125-char .txt file) stxtonly (an 80-char .txt file)The fields task may be used to strip out selected columns from the .txt files. The 125-char may be printed without wrapping the lines either in landscape mode for a laser printer, or on a 132 column lineprinter.
- imupdate = "no"
- Update the image header with the computed velocities? If set to yes, then the image will be updated with the observed and heliocentric velocities by adding the keywpars.vobs and keywpars.vhelio keywords respectively. Two-dimensional spectra cannot be updated. Additional keywords defined in the keywpars pset will also be updated.
- graphics = "stdgraph"
- Output graphics device.
- interactive = "yes"
- Process the spectra interactively?
- autowrite = "yes"
- Automatically record the last fit to the log file when moving to the next/previous spectrum or quitting? If set to "no", the user will be queried whether to write the results if no write was performed, and possibly queried for a file name if output isn't set.
- autodraw = "yes"
- Automatically redraw the new fit after it changes. If set to the default "yes" then the old fit is erased and a new one computed and drawn after the g, y, d, or b keystrokes. If set to "no", then old fits are not erased and the user must redraw the screen with an r keystroke.
- ccftype = "image"
- Type of output to create when writing out the correlation function with the ":wccf file" command. Possible choices are "text" which will be a simple list of (lag,correlation_value) pairs, or "image" which will be an IRAF image whose header would describe the lag limits and selected peak.
ADDITIONAL PARAMETER SETS
- observatory = "kpno"
- The location of the observations, as defined by the noao.observatory task. The image header keyword OBSERVAT will override this parameter, thus allowing for images which were taken at another observatory to be properly corrected. These values are used in the heliocentric correction routines.
- continpars = ""
- The continuum subtraction parameters as described in the continpars named pset.
- filtpars = ""
- The parameter set defining the parameters to be used in filtering the data prior to the correlation.
- keywpars = ""
- The image header keyword translation table as described in the keywpars named pset.
RV PACKAGE PARAMETERS
- dispaxis = 1, nsum = 1
- Parameters for defining vectors in 2D images. The dispersion axis is 1 for line vectors and 2 for column vectors. A DISPAXIS parameter in the image header has precedence over the dispaxis parameter.
- z_threshold = 0.2
- Redshift value at which the output logs switch from printing velocities in units of Km/s to redshift z values.
- tolerance = 1.0e-5
- Fitting tolerance for Least Squares fitting.
- maxiters = 100
- Maximum number of iterations for Least Squares fitting or any other iterative algorithm.
- interp = "poly5"
- Interpolator used when rebinning the data to a log-linear dispersion. See the section on interpolation for more information. Possible choices are "nearest", "linear", "poly3", "poly5", "spline3", and "sinc".
- line_color = 1
- Color index of overlay plotting vectors. This parameter has no effect on devices which do not support color vectors.
- text_color = 1
- Color index of plot text annotation. This parameter has no effect on devices which do not support color vectors.
- observatory = "observatory"
- Observatory at which the spectra were obtained if not specified in the image header by the keyword OBSERVAT. This parameter is used by several tasks in the package through parameter redirection so this parameter may be used to affect all these tasks at the same time. The observatory may be one of the observatories in the observatory database, "observatory" to select the observatory defined by the environment variable "observatory" or the parameter observatory.observatory , or "obspars" to select the current parameters set in the observatory task. See help for observatory for additional information.
Fxcor performs a Fourier cross-correlation on the input list of object and template spectra. Object spectra may be either one or two dimensional (in `echelle' or `multispec' format), and may be correlated against a one or two dimensional template. If the template spectrum is only one dimensional but the object is two dimensional, the template is used to correlate each of the apertures specified by the apertures parameter in the object spectrum. Two dimensional templates will correlate corresponding apertures.
If the input spectra are not dispersion corrected (DC-FLAG parameter missing or less than zero), or the pixcorr parameter is turned on, then only a pixel space correlation is done. This is appropriate for a simple cross-correlation of images whether spectra or not. If the spectra are dispersion corrected, a log binned correlation is performed and various radial velocity measurements are made. At a minimum, a relative velocity between the object and template spectra is produced. If the image headers contain sufficient information for heliocentric velocity corrections (see help for keywpars ), the corrections are computed and possibly recorded in the image header (see below for a full explanation of the computed velocities). If the value of the heliocentric velocity is returned as INDEF, the user may use the v keystroke to see the full results of the correlation, including errors which occured causing the corrections to not be done.
A number of operations may be performed to prepare the data for correlation. If a linear wavelength dispersion is defined, the spectra are rebinned to a log-linear dispersion using the interpolant set by the package parameter interp (See the section on interpolation for details). At this time only linear input dispersions are supported for rebinning. The starting and ending wavelength for both spectra will remain the same, but the dispersion in log space will be determined from the rebin parameter if the input disersions aren't equal, or from the spectrum's endpoints and number of pixels if they are equal. For example, assuming rebin is set to "smallest", if object one and the template have the same input log dispersion of 0.5e-4 A/pix the data will not be rebinned. Object two with a wpc of 0.4e-4 A/pix will force the template to be rebinned to a common wpc of 0.4e-4 A/pix. If the third object on the list then has a dispersion of 0.3e-4 A/pix, the template will again be rebinned from the original 0.5e-4 A/pix dispersion to a new 0.3e-4 A/pix dispersion. If object three and the template are the same star, the template spectrum will suffer from interpolation errors that should be considered when analyzing the results. The output .txt file will update every time the common dispersion is changed. The suggested course of action is to bin all spectra to the same dispersion, preferably a log-linear one, prior to executing this package.
If the continuum flag is set to something other than "none", the object and/or template data will be continuum subtracted using the fitting parameters found in the continpars pset on input. The data are zeroed outside the sample region specified by the osample and rsample parameters, the ends of each region are apodized, and the bias is then subtracted. If the filter flag is set to something other than "none", the data are Fourier filtered according to the parameters in the filtpars pset prior to the correlation computation.
Once the correlation is computed, the maximum peak within the window specified by the wincenter and window parameters is found and fit according to the width or height and peak parameters. A small, unlabelled plot of the entire cross correlation function (hereafter CCF) is drawn above a larger, expanded plot centered on the peak in a window of size specified by the window parameter. The dashed lines in the small plot show the limits of the expanded plot. The bottom axis of the expanded plot is labelled with pixel lag and, if dispersion information is present, the top axis is labelled with relative velocity. To choose a different peak to fit, move the cursor to the top plot of the whole ccf and hit the z keystroke at the desired peak. The plot will be redrawn with the new peak now centered in the window and a fit automatically done. The status line will contain a summary of the pixel shift from the fit and optional velocity information. The v keystroke may be used to suspend graphics and get a more detailed description of the correlation and fit, and the + keystroke will toggle the status line output. To view the antisymmetric noise component of the correlation function, simply hit the a keystroke followed by any keystroke to return to the correlation plot. Similarly, the e keystroke may be used to preview the summary plot of the correlation, again hitting any key to return to the correlation. An overplot of the subtracted fit (residuals) may be seen with the j keystroke.
If the user is dissatisfied with the fit to the peak, he can mark the left and right side of the peak with the g keystroke to redo the fit, or else set the cursor to mark a cutoff with the y keystroke, and all points from the peak maximum to the cursor will be fit. To fix the background of a Gaussian fit (i.e. change the background parameter graphically), type the b keystroke at the desired level, and a new fit will be done. The r keystroke may be used at any time to redraw the plot, and the x keystroke can be used to compute a new correlation if any of the parameters relating to the correlation are changed (e.g. the apodize percentage). New correlations are automatically computed when new images are read in, the data are continuum subtracted, a different region is selected for correlation, or Fourier filtering is done. Certain colon commands from within the Fourier or Spectrum mode will also cause a new correlation to be computed when these modes are exited.
The c keystroke may be used to get a printout of the cursor position in both lag and relative velocity. The cursor may be positioned in either the unlabelled CCF plot on the top, or in the zoomed plot on the bottom. This is useful for judging the FWHM calculation, or estimating the velocity of a peak without using the z keystroke to zoom and fit. Note that because of the plotting implementation, the normal cursor mode keystroke shift-C should not be used as it may return erroneous results depending upon cursor position. Note also that velocities printed are only approximate relative velocities, and the user should properly fit a peak or use the ":correction" command to get a true heliocentric velocity.
For binary star work, the user may type the d and/or - keystrokes to fit and then subtract up to four Gaussians to the peaks. See the discussion below for more deatils on the use of this feature. If multiple peaks were fit, a separate entry will be made in the log file for each peak with a comment that it was part of a blended peak. The metacode file will contain only one summary plot with each peak marked with it's heliocentric velocity or pixel shift.
To move to the next spectrum in a list (of images or apertures), simply hit the n keystroke. Similary, the p keystroke will move to the previous spectrum. These commands have a hitch, though. By default, the next/previous commands will move first to the next template in the template image list. Once the end of the template image list is reached, the next spectrum will be the next aperture in the list specified by apertures , resetting the template image list automatically and possibly updating the aperture in the template image as well. Finally, after correlating all of the templates against all of the apertures, the next/previous command will move to the next object image, again resetting the template image and/or aperture list. To override this sequence, the user may use the ":next" or ":previous" commands and specify one of "aperture", "object", or "template". If autowrite is set, the results of the last fit will be written to the log automatically. To write any one of the fits explicity, use the w keystroke.
The fxcor task also contains three submodes discussed in detail below. Briefly, the f keystroke will put the user in the "fourier mode", where he can examine the Fourier transform of the spectra in various ways and change/examine the filtering parameters. The o and t keystrokes let the user examine and fit the continuum for the object and template spectra, respectively, using the icfit commands. Upon exiting the continuum fitting the spectra are continuum subtracted and a new correlation is computed. Finally the s keystroke will put the user in "spectrum mode", in which he may graphically select the region to be correlated, compute an approximate shift using the cursor, or simply examine the two spectra in a variety of ways. All of these submodes are exited with the q keystroke, after which the correlation will be redone, if necessary, and the CCF plot redrawn.
Colon commands may also be used to examine or change parameter values in any of the filtpars , continpars , or keywpars psets. Simply type a : followed by the parameter name and an optional new value. The observatory parameters may only be changed outside the task.
To exit the task, type q. Results will be saved to the logfile automatically if one was specified, otherwise the user will be asked if he wants to save the results, and if so, queried for a file name before exiting if no output file was defined.
If the output parameter is set, several files will be created depending on the value of the verbose parameter (see the parameter description for details). These include a file with a ".gki" suffix containing metacode output of a summary plot, a ".txt" suffix file containing text output in the standard IRAF list format containing either verbose or non-verbose output, and a third file having a ".log" suffix containing a verbose description of the correlation and fit, as well as any warning messages. This contents of the ".log" file is identical to what is seen with the v keystroke. If the computed relative velocity exceeds the package parameter z_threshold , the ".txt" file will contain redshift Z values rather than the default velocities. Text file output may be have selected columns extracted using the iraf fields task (where string valued fields will have blank spaces replaced with an underscore), and specific metacode plots may be extracted or displayed with the iraf gkiextract and/or stdgraph /gkimosaic tasks.
(References: Tonry, J. and Davis, M. 1979 Astron. J. 84, 1511, and Wyatt, W.F. 1985 in IAU Coll. No 88, Stellar Radial Velocities , p 123).
Fourier mode is entered from the main task mode via the f keystroke. By default, the user is presented with a split plot of the power spectra of the object and template spectra (object on top) and the requested filter overlayed. The X-axis is double-labelled with wavenumbers on the bottom of the screen and frequency on top. The ":log_scale" command can be used to toggle the log scaling of the Y-axis of the plot, and the ":overlay" command will toggle whether or not the filter function (if specified) is overlayed on the plot. By default the entire power spectrum is displayed, but the ":zoom" command may be used to specify a blowup factor for the display (e.g. ":zoom 2" will display only the first half of the power spectrum). Plot scaling and content parameters are learned for the next invocation of this mode.
The plot contents may also be changed through various keystroke commands. The p keystroke will display the power spectrum (the default) and the f keystroke will display the two FFT's. The b and g keystrokes may be used to examine the power spectra and FFT's respectively before filtering. The user can determine the period trend in the data by placing the cursor at a particular wavenumber/frequency and hitting the i keystroke (this command will not work on a plot of the filtered spectra). The r key will redraw whichever plot is currently selected and a q will return the user to the mode which called the Fourier mode (i.e. either the main task mode or the Spectrum mode). The Spectrum mode may be entered from within Fourier mode via the s keystroke.
Colon commands are also used to specify or examine the filtering parameters by simply typing a : followed by the parameter name found in the filtpars pset.
Automatic continuum subtraction is controlled by the continpars pset. These may be reset from the main correlation function mode. To interactively fit and modify the continuum fitting parameters the o and t keys are used. This enters the ICFIT package which is described elsewhere (see icfit ). Exiting the fitting, with q, causes a recomputation of the correlation function and peak fit. To view the flattened spectra use the spectrum review mode entered with the s key. Fitting parameters changed while doing the interactive continuum fitting are learned.
Spectrum mode is entered from the main or fourier mode via the s keystroke. The user may select plots of the original input spectra with the i keystroke, or the continuum subtracted spectra with the n keystroke, If the data have been rebinned to a log scale, they will still be be plotted on a linear wavelength scale for clarity. Pixel data are plotted identically to how they were read. (NOTE: For rebinned spectra, a slight slope may be noticed in the original data because of rebinning effects.) In addition, a sample regions (if selected) for the correlation are marked on the bottom of both plots. To select a new sample region, use the s keystroke to select the endpoints of the region. An s keystroke on the top plot will select a sample region for the object spectrum, and an s on the bottom plot will select a template sample, using the b keystroke will select both samples simultaneously. The regions may be selected explicity by using the ":osample" and ":rsample" commands, and selected sample regions may be cleared entirely using the (e.g.) ":osample *" command, or individual regions may be unselected by putting the cursor within the region and typing u. See the parameter description for syntax of the sample ranges. Regions will be checked and possibly truncated to see if they lie within the range of the spectrum. The d keystroke may be used to print the difference in pixels (and/or velocity) between two points on the spectrum. This is useful for getting an approximate shift. Fourier mode may be entered via the f keystroke. To return to the correlation simply type q or x.
In addition to the above commands, the user may examine or change the parameters in the continpars pset by simply typing a : followed by the parameter name. Changing these values will not cause a new correlation until an explicit command is given to redo the continuum subtraction.
(NOTE: More functionality is planned for this mode.)
The interpolation type is set by the package parameter interp . The available interpolation types are:
nearest - nearest neighbor linear - linear poly3 - 3rd order polynomial poly5 - 5th order polynomial spline3 - cubic spline sinc - sinc function
The default interpolation type is a 5th order polynomial (poly5).
The choice of interpolation type depends on the type of data, smooth verses strong, sharp, undersampled features, and the requirements of the user. The "nearest" and "linear" interpolation are somewhat crude and simple but they avoid "ringing" near sharp features. The polynomial interpolations are smoother but have noticible ringing near sharp features. They are, unlike the sinc function described below, localized.
In V2.10 a "sinc" interpolation option is available. This function has advantages and disadvantages. It is important to realize that there are disadvantages! Sinc interpolation approximates applying a phase shift to the fourier transform of the spectrum. Thus, repeated interpolations do not accumulate errors (or nearly so) and, in particular, a forward and reverse interpolation will recover the original spectrum much more closely than other interpolation types. However, for undersampled, strong features, such as cosmic rays or narrow emission or absorption lines, the ringing can be more severe than the polynomial interpolations. The ringing is especially a concern because it extends a long way from the feature causing the ringing; 30 pixels with the truncated algorithm used. Note that it is not the truncation of the interpolation function which is at fault!
Because of the problems seen with sinc interpolation it should be used with care. Specifically, if there are no undersampled, narrow features it is a good choice but when there are such features the contamination of the spectrum by ringing is much more severe than with other interpolation types.
When entering the deblending function, two cursor settings define the local background, which may be sloping, and the region to be fit. Note that both the x and y of the cursor position are used. The lines to be fit are then entered either with the cursor (m), or by typing the shifts (t). The latter is useful if the shifts of the lines are known accurately and if fits restricting the absolute or relative positions of the lines will be used (i.e. a, b, d, e). A maximum of four lines may be fit. If fewer lines are desired, exit the marking step with q.
There are six types of fits which may be selected. This covers all combinations of fixing the absolute positions, the relative positions, the sigmas to be the same, and letting all parameters be determined. In all cases the peak intensities are also determined for each line. The options are given below with the appropriate key and mneumonic.
a=0p1s Fit intensities and one sigma with positions fixed b=1p1s Fit intensities, one position, and one sigma with separations fixed c=np1s Fit intensities, positions, and one sigma d=0pns Fit intensities and sigmas with positions fixed e=1pns Fit intensities, one position, and sigmas with separations fixed f=npns Fit intensities, positions, and sigmas
This list may also be printed with the ? key when in the deblending function.
As noted above, sometimes the absolute or relative shifts of the lines are known a priori and this information may be entered by typing the shifts explicitly using the t option during marking. In this case, one should not use the c or f fitting options since they will adjust the line positions to improve the fit. Options a and d will not change the lines positions and fit for one or more sigmas. Options b and e will maintain the relative positions of the lines but allow an other than expected shift.
After the fit, the modeled lines are overplotted. The line center, flux, equivalent width, and full width half maximum are printed on the status line for the first line. The values for the other lines and the RMS of the fit may be examined by scrolling the status line using the +, -, and r keys. Velocity information is obtained by typing the v keystroke. To continue enter q.
The fitting may be repeated with different options until exiting with q.
The fitted model may be subtracted from the data (after exiting the deblending function) using the - (minus) keystroke to delimit the region for which the subtraction is to be performed. This allows you to fit a portion of a peak which may be contaminated by a blend and then subtract away the entire peak to examine the remaining components.
The fitting uses an interative algorithm based on the Levenberg-Marquardt method. The iterations attempt to improve the fit by varying the parameters along the gradient of improvement in the chi square. This method requires that the initial values for the parameters be close enough that the gradient leads to the correct solution rather than an incorrect local minimum in the chi square. The initial values are determined as follows:
1. The initial line centers are those specified by the user either by marking with the cursor or entering the shifts. 2. The initial peak intensities are the data values at the given line centers with the marked continuum subtracted. 3. The initial sigmas are obtained by dividing the width of the marked fitting region by the number of lines and then dividing this width by 4.
Note that each time a new fitting options is specified the initial parameters are reset. Thus the results do not depend on the history of previous fits. However, within each option an iteration of parameters is performed as described next.
The interation is more likely to fail if one initially attempts to fit too many parameters simultaneously. A constrained approach to the solution is obtained by iterating starting with a few parameters and then adding more parameters as the solution approaches the true chi square minimum. This is done by using the solutions from the more constrained options as the starting point for the less constrained options. In particular, the following iterative constraints are used during each option:
a: 0p1s b: 0p1s, 1p1s c: 0p1s, 1p1s, np1s d: 0p1s, 0pns e: 0p1s, 1p1s, 1pns f: 0p1s, 1p1s, np1s, npns
For example, the most general fit, f, first fits for only a single sigma and the peak intensities, then allows the lines to shift but keeping the relative separations fixed. Next, the positions are allowed to vary independently but still using a single sigma, and then allows all parameters to vary.
To conclude, here are some general comments. The most restrictive a key will give odd results if the initial positions are not close to the true centers. The most general f can also lead to incorrect results by using unphysically different sigmas to make one line very narrow and another very broad in an attempt to fit very blended lines. The algorithm works well when the lines are not severely blended and the shapes of the lines are close to Gaussian.
Determining the center of the cross correlation peak is the key step in measuring a relative shift or velocity between the object and template. The width of the correlation peak is also of interest for measuring a line broadening between the two samples. Since people have different preferences and prejudices about these important measurements, a variety of methods with a range of parameters is provided.
In all cases, one must specify the fitting function and a sample width; i.e. the range of points about the correlation peak to be used in the measurement. Note that the width defines where the fitting weights vanish and should be something like the full width. For the CENTER1D algorithm the maximum weights are at the half width points while for the other methods (with the exception of "sinc") greater weight is given to data nearer the center.
The width may be specified in three ways. The first is as an actual width in pixels. This is the most straightforward and is independent of quirks in the actual shape of the peak. The second way is to find where the correlation function crosses a specified height or level. The height may be specified in normalized correlation units or as a fraction of the peak height. The former is equivalent to the interactive y key setting while the latter may be used to select some "flux" point. A value of 0.5 in the latter would be approximately the full width at half intensity point except that the true zero or base of the peak is somewhat uncertain and one needs to keep in mind that the weights go to zero at this point. Note that a level may be negative. In this method the actual width may go to zero or include the entire data range if the level fall above the peak or below the minimum of the correlation. The minimum and maximum width parameters are applied to constrain the fitting region. The last method is to interactively mark the fitting region with the g key.
There are five methods for determining the correlation peak position. The CENTER1D algorithm has been heavily used in IRAF and is quite stable and reliable. It is independent of a particular model for the shape of the peak or the background determination and is based on bisecting the integral. It uses antisymmetric weights with maxima at points half way between the estimated center and the fitting region endpoint. A parabola fit and sinc interpolation is also independent of background determinations. The parabola is included because it is a common method of peak centering.
The sinc option uses a sinc interpolator together with a maximization (actually a minimization algorithm) function to determine the peak height and center. A width will be computed only if a background level has been set and is determined empirically based on the peak height and background. Point weighting is not used in this option.
The gaussian and lorentzian function fits are model dependent and determine a center, width, and peak value. The background may also be determined simultaneously but this extra degree of freedom for a function which is not strictly gaussian or lorentzian may produce results which are sensitive to details of the shape of the correlation function. The widths reported are the full width at half maximum from the fits.
The parabola, gaussian, and lorentzian methods use weights which vary continuously from 1 at the estimated center to zero at the endpoints of the fitting region. The functional form of the weights is a power law with specified exponent. A value of zero for the exponent produces uniform weights. However, this is discontinuous at the endpoints and so is very sensitive to the data window. A value of one (the default) produces linearly decreasing weights.
All these methods produce centers which depend on the actual data points and weights used. Thus, it is important to iterate using the last determined center as the center of the data window with continuous weights in order to find a self-consistent center. The methods are iterated until the center does not change by more than 0.01 pixels or a maximum of 100 iterations is reached.
Errors in the pixel shift are computed from the center parameter of the fitting function. Velocity errors are computed based on the fitted peak height and the antisymmetric noise as described in the Tonry & Davis paper (1979, Astron. J. 84, 1511). Dispersion/pixel-width errors are not computed in this release but are planned for a future release.
The initial peak fit will be the maximum of the CCF. This will be the only peak fit in non-interactive mode but a confidence level will be entered in the logfile. In interactive mode, the user may select a different peak with the z keystroke, and the maximum peak within the specified window (centered on the cursor) will be fit. The user has full control in interactive mode over the points used in the fit. Once the endpoints of the peak have been selected, the actual data points are shown with + signs on the CCF, the fitted curve drawn, and a horizontal bar showing the location of the FWHM calculation is displayed. The status line will show a summary of the fit, and the user may type the v keystroke for a more detailed description of the fit and correlation.
Up to three velocities are computed by the task depending on the completeness of the images headers and the presence of dispersion information. If only dispersion information is present, a relative velocity, VREL, and an error will be computed. If a full header is present (see the keywpars help page), an observed and heliocentric velocity (VOBS and VHELIO respectively) will be computed.
In short form, here are the equations:
ref_rvobs = catalogue_vel_of_template - H(temp) # obs. vel. of temp. VREL = C * (10 ** (wpc * shift) - 1.) # relative vel. VOBS = ((1+ref_rvobs/C)*(10**(wpc*shift)-1)) * C # observed vel. VHELIO = VOBS + H(object) # heliocentric vel.where H() is the heliocentric correction for that observation. The equation used for the relative velocity is derived from the standard (1+z), and the VOBS equation reflects that the observed velocty is the product of (1+z) values for the object and template (this allows for high redshift templates to be used). The date, time, and position of each spectrum is found from the image header via the keywords defined in keywpars . In the case of the time the task first looks for a keyword defining the UT mid-point of the observation (keywpars.utmiddle ). If that is not found any time present in the header DATE-OBS (keywpars.date_obs ) keyword is used at the UT start point, if there is no time in the keyword value then the mid-point UT is computed from the exposure time (keywpars.exptime ) and UT of observation (keywpars.ut ) keywords.
The keyword added to the template header (as defined by the "vhelio" parameter in the keywpars pset) should be the catalogue velocity of the template. Since the observation of the template has a slightly different heliocentric correction, this is subtracted from the template heliocentric velocity so that the observed velocity of the template is used when correcting the relative velocity computed from the shift. This gives the observed velocity of the object wrt the template. Adding the heliocentric correction of the object star then yields the true heliocentric velocity of the object.
CORRELATION MODE COMMANDS
? Print list of cursor key and colon commands - Subtract blended component from correlation peak . Do the continuum subtraction + Toggle status line output a Display the antisymmetric noise component of the correlation b Fix the background level for the Gaussian fit c Read out cursor position in pixel lag and velocity d Deblend multiple correlation peak e Preview the summary plot of the correlation f Fourier filtering and FFT display mode g Mark correlation peak lag limits and fit I Interrupt j Plot the residuals of the fit to the peak l Page the current logfile of results m Plot polymarkers of actual CCF points on the plot n Go to next (template --> aperture --> object) o Fit or refit object spectrum continuum for subtraction p Go to previous (template --> aperture --> object) q Quit task r Redraw s Examine object/template spectra and display mode t Fit or refit template spectrum continuum for subtraction v Print full correlation result in text window w Write current correlation results to the log file x Compute correlation y Mark correlation peak lower limit and fit z Expand on different correlation peak using full correlation plot :apertures [range] Set/Show list of apertures to process :apnum [aperture] Set/Show specific aperture to process :apodize [fraction] Set/Show fraction of endpts to apodize :autowrite [y|n] Set/Show autowrite param :autodraw [y|n] Set/Show autodraw param :background [background|INDEF] Set/Show background fitting level :ccftype [image|text] Set/Show type of CCF output :comment [string] Add a comment to the output logs :continuum [both|obj|temp|none] Set/Show which spectra to normalize :correction shift Convert a pixel shift to a velocity :deltav Print the velocity per pixel dispersion :disp Print dispersion info :filter [both|obj|temp|none] Set/Show which spectra to filter :function [gaussian|lorentzian| Set/Show CCF peak fitting function center1d|parabola] :height [height] Set/SHow CCF peak fit height :imupdate [y|n] Set/Show image update flag :maxwidth [width] Set/Show min fitting width :minwidth [width] Set/Show max fitting width :nbang :Next command without a write :next [temp|aperture|object] Go to next correlation pair :objects [list] Set/Show object list :osample [range] Set/Show object regions to correlate :output [fname] Set/Show output logfile :<parameter> [value] Set/Show pset parameter value :peak [y|n] Set/Show peak height flag :pbang :Previous command without a write :previous [temp|aperture|object] Go to previous correlation pair :printz [y|n] Toggle output of redshift z values :rebin [small|large|obj|temp] Set/Show the rebin parameter :results [file] Page results :rsample [range] Set/Show template regions to correlate :show List current parameters :templates [list] Set/Show template list :tempvel [velocity] Set/Show template velocity :tnum [temp_code] Move to a specific temp. in the list :unlearn Unlearn task parameters :update Update task parameters :version Show task version number :verbose [y|n] Set/Show verbose output flag :wccf Write out the CCF to an image|file :weights [weight] Set/Show fitting weights :width [width] Set/Show fitting width about peak :wincenter [center] Set/Show peak window center :window [size] Set/Show size of window :ymin [correlation height] Set/Show lower ccf plot scaling :ymax [correlation height] Set/Show upper ccf plot scaling
FOURIER MODE COMMANDS
? Print list of cursor key and colon commands b Display power spectra before filtering f Enter Fourier mode g Display Fourier transforms before filtering i Print period trend information o Display filtered and unfiltered object spectrum p Display power spectra after filtering q Quit r Redraw s Enter Spectrum mode t Display filtered and unfiltered template spectrum x Return to parent mode :log_scale [y|n] Plot on a Log scale? :one_image [object|template] What plot on screen :overlay [y|n] Overlay filt function? :<parameter> [value] Set/Show the FILTERPARS parameter value :plot [object|template] What type of plot to draw on single plot? :split_plot [y|n] Make a split-plot? :when [before|after] Plot before/after filter? :zoom [factor] FFT zoom parameter
CONTINUUM MODE COMMANDS
See icfit .
SPECTRUM MODE COMMANDS
? Print list of cursor key and colon commands b Select sample regions for both spectra d Print velocity difference between two cursor positions f Enter Fourier mode i Display original input spectra n Display continuum subtracted spectra p Display the prepared spectra prior to correlation q Quit r Redraw s Select sample region endpoints u Unselect a sample region x Return to correlation mode :<parameter> [value] Set/Show parameters in CONTINPARS pset :osample [list] List of object sample regions :rsample [list] List of template sample regions :show List current parameters
1. Cross correlate a list of 1-dimensional object spectra against three 1-dimensional template spectra, saving results automatically and not continuum subtracting or filtering the data: rv> fxcor.interactive = no # Do it in batch mode rv> fxcor obj* temp1,temp2,temp3 autowrite+ continuum="no" >>> filter="no" output="results" 2. Compute a velocity for a list of apertures in a 2-dimensional multispec format object image, using only two apertures of a multispec image as the templates: cl> onedspec on> scopy object.ms temp apert="8,9" inform="multi" outform="oned" on> rv rv> fxcor.interactive = no # Do it in batch mode rv> fxcor object.ms temp.0008,temp.0009 apertures="1-7,10,12-35" In this example, apertures 8 and 9 of the object image will be used as the template. The \fIscopy\fR task is used to extract the aper- tures to onedspec format, into two images named "temp.0008" and "temp.0009". The task is then run with all of the apertures in the aperture list correlated against the onedspec templates. 3. Compute a velocity by fitting a fixed number of points on the peak, using uniform weighting: rv> fxcor obj temp width=8 weights=0. 4. Compute a velocity by fitting a Gaussian to the points on the CCF peak above the 0.1 correlation level. Constrain the number of points to be less than 15, and linearly decrease the weights: rv> fxcor obj temp func="gaussian" width=INDEF height=0.1 >>> maxwidth=15 weights=1. 5. Compute a velocity by fitting a Lorentzian to the peak, from the peak maximum to it's half power point: rv> fxcor obj temp func-"lorentz" width=INDEF height=0.5 peak+ >>> maxwidth=15 weights=1. 6. Process a 1-dimensional object against a 1-dimensional template interactively, examining the FFT, and input spectra to define a sample region for the correlation: rv> fxcor obj temp inter+ continuum="both" autowrite- output="" Screen is cleared and CCF peak with fit displayed ... to refit peak, move cursor to left side of peak and type 'g' ... move cursor to right side of peak and hit any key New fit is drawn and results displayed to the status line ... type the 'v' key for a detailed description of the correlation Graphics are suspended and the text screen shows various parameters of the correlation and fit. ... type 'q' to get back to graphics mode ... to examine the FFT's of the spectra, type the 'f' keystroke. The screen is cleared and a split plot of the two power spectra after filtering is drawn with the requested filter (if any) overlayed. ... type the 'f' keystroke The screen is cleared and the absolute value of the two FFT's after filtering is plotted, again with the filter overlayed. ... type ":overlay no", followed by a 'g' keystroke The spectra are redrawn prior to filtering, with no filter over- lay ... type 'q' to return to correlation mode The screen is redrawn with the CCF plot and peak fit ... type 's' to enter spectrum mode The screen is cleared and the the input spectra displayed ... type 's' to mark the endpoints of sample regions for correl- ... ation. The user can mark either the top or bottom plot to ... set sample regions for the object and template respectively. ... Then type 'q' to quit this mode A new correlation is computed and the peak refit automatically ... type 'q' to quit the task, satisfied with the results The user is asked whether he wants to save results ... type 'y' or <cr> to save results The user is prompted for an output file name since one wasn't specified in the parameter set ... type in a file name The task exits. 7. Save the correlation function of two galaxy spectra: rv> fxcor obj temp inter+ ccftype="text" Screen is cleared and CCF peak with fit displayed ... type ":wccf" to write the CCF ... type in a filename for the text output ... quit the task rv> rspectext ccf.txt ccf.fits dtype=interp rv> splot ccf.fits The velocity per-pixel-shift is non-linear and is an approximation which works well for low-velocity shifts. In the case of hi-velocity correlations (or when there are many points) it is best to save the CCF as a text file where the velocity at each shift is written to the file, then use RSPECTEXT to linearize and convert to an image format. This avoids the task interpolating a saved image CCF in cases where it may not be required. 7. Compute a cross-correlation where the template has already been corrected to the rest frame and no heliocentric correction is required: Step 1) Use the HEDIT or HFIX tasks to add the following keywords to the template image: DATE-OBS= '1993-03-17T04:56:38.0' RA = '12:00:00' DEC = '12:00:00' EPOCH = 1993.0 OBSERVAT= 'KPNO' VHELIO = 0.0 These values produce a heliocentric correction of zero to within 5 decimal places. The VHELIO keyword will default to zero if not present. Step 2) Use the HEDIT task to add an OBSERVAT keyword to each of the object spectra. The OBSERVATORY task can be used get a list of recognized observatories. Because mixing observatories is not currently well supported, the use of the OBSERVAT keyword in \fI both\fR images is the only sure way to apply the proper observatory information to each image. Users may wish to derive a zero-valued heliocentric correction for their local observatory and use those values instead.