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imedit -- examine and edit pixels in images


imedit input output


List of images to be edited. Images must be two dimensional.
List of output images. The list must match the input list or be empty. In the latter case the output image is the same as the input image; i.e. the edited image replaces the input image.
cursor = ""
The editing commands are entered via a cursor list. When the task is run interactively this will normally be the standard image cursor (stdimcur) specified by a null string. Commands may be read from a file. The file format may be cursor values including the command keys, a simple list of positions with the default command given by the default parameter, and a regions file, as used in the task fixpix and the ccdred package, selected by the fixpix parameter.
logfile = ""
File in which to record the editing commands which modify the images. The display and statistics commands which don't modify the images are not recorded. This file may be used for keeping a record of the modifications. It may also be used as cursor input for other images to replicate the same editing operations.
display = yes
Display the image during editing? If yes then the display command, given by the parameter command , is used to display the image. Normally the display is used when editing interactively and turned off when using file input.
autodisplay = yes
Automatically redisplay the image after each change? If the display of the image is rapid enough then each change can be displayed as it is made by setting this parameter to yes. However, it is faster to accumulate changes and then explicitly redisplay the image. When the parameter is no then the image is only redisplayed by explicit command.
autosurface = no
Automatically display surface plots after each change? In addition to the image display command, the task can display a before and after surface plot of the modified region. This can be done by explicit command or automatically after each change.
aperture = "circular"
Aperture for aperture editing. Some commands specify the region to be edited by a center and radius. The shape of the aperture is selected by this parameter. The choices are "circular" and "square". Note that this does not apply to commands in which a rectangle is specified by selecting the corners.
radius = 2.
Radius of the aperture for commands selecting an aperture. For circular apertures this is the radius while for square apertures it is half of the side of the square. Note that partial pixels are not used so that a circular aperture is not perfectly circular; i.e. if the center of a pixel is within this distance of the center pixel it is modified and otherwise it is not. A radius of zero may be used to select a single pixel (with either aperture type).
search = 2.
Search radius for adjusting the position of the region to be edited. This applies to both aperture regions and rectangular regions. The center pixel of the region is searched within this radius for the maximum or minium pixel value. If the value is zero then no searching is done and the specified region is used directly. If the value is positive then the specified region is adjusted to be centered on a relative maximum. A relative minimum may be found if the value is negative with the absolute value used as the search radius.
buffer = 1.
Background buffer width. A buffer annulus separates the region to be edited from a background annulus used for determining the background. It has the same shape as the region to be edited; i.e. circular, square, rectangular, or line.
width = 2.
Width of background annulus. The pixels used for background determinations is taken from an annulus of the same shape as the region to be edited and with the specified width in pixels.
xorder = 2, yorder = 2
Orders (number of terms) of surface polynomial fit to background pixels for statistics and background subtraction. The orders should generally be low with orders of 2 for a plane background. If either order is zero then a median background is used.
value = 0.
Value for constant substitution. One editing command is replacement of a region by this value.
minvalue = INDEF, maxvalue = INDEF
Range of values which may be modified. Value of INDEF map to the minimum and maximum possible values.
sigma = INDEF
Sigma of noise to be added to substitution values. If less than or equal to zero then no noise is added. If INDEF then pixel values from the background region are randomly selected after subtracting the fitted background surface or median. Finally if a positive value is given than a gaussian noise distribution is added.
angh = -33., angv = 25.
Horizontal and vertical viewing angles (in degrees) for surface plots.
command = "display $image erase=$erase fill=yes order=0 >& dev$null"
Command for displaying images. This task displays images by executing a standard IRAF command. Two arguments may be substituted by the appropriate values; the image name specified by "$image" and the boolean erase flag specified by "$erase". Except for unusual cases the tv.display command is used with the fill option. The fill option is required to provide a zoom feature. See the examples for another possible command.
graphics = "stdgraph"
Graphics device used for surface plots. Normally this is the standard graphics device "stdgraph" though other possiblities are "stdplot" and "stdvdm". Note the the standard graphics output may also be redirected to a file with ">G file" where "file" is any file name.
default = "b"
Default command option for simple position list input. If the input is a list of column and line positions (x,y) then the command executed at each position is given by this parameter. This should be one of the aperture type editing commands, the statistics command, or the surface plotting command. Two keystroke commands would obviously be incorrect. This parameter is ignored in "fixpix" mode .
fixpix = no
Fixpix style input? This type of input consists of rectangular regions specified by lines giving the starting and ending column and starting and ending line. This is the same input used by fixpix and in the ccdred package. The feature to refer to "untrimmed" images in the latter package is not available in this task. When selected the editing consists of interpolation across the narrowest dimension of the region and the default key is ignored.


Regions of images are examined and edited. This may be done interactively using an image display and cursor or noninteractively using a list of positions and commands. There are a variety of display and editing options. A list of input images and a matching list of output images are specified. The output images are only created if the input image is modified (except by an explicit "write" command). If no output list is specified (an empty list given by "") then the modified images are written back to the input images. The images are edited in a temporary buffer image beginning with "imedit".

Commands are given via a cursor list. When the task is run interactively this will normally be the standard image cursor (stdimcur). Commands may be read from a file. The file format may be cursor values including the command keys, a simple list of positions with the default command given by the default parameter, and a regions file, as used in the task fixpix and the ccdred package, selected by the fixpix parameter.

The commands which modify the image may be written to a log file specified by parameter logfile . This file can be used as a record of the pixels modified. The format of this file is also suitable for input as a cursor list. This allows the same commands to be applied to other images. Be careful not to have the cursor input and logfile have the same name!

When the display parameter is set the command given by the parameter command is executed. Normally this command loads the image display though it could also create a contour map or other graph whose x and y coordinates are the same as the image coordinates. The image is displayed when editing interactively and the standard image cursor (which can be redefined to be the standard graphics cursor) is used to select regions to be edited. When not editing interactively the display flag should be turned off.

It is nice to see changes to the image displayed immediately. This is possible using the autodisplay option. Note that this requires the display parameter to also be set. If the autodisplay flag is set the display command is repeated after each change to the image. The drawback to this is that the full image (or image section) is reloaded and so can be slow. If not set it is still possible to explicitly give a redisplay command, r, after a number of changes have been made.

Another display option is to make surface graphs to the specified graphics device (normally the standard graphics terminal). This may be done by the commands g and s and automatically after each change if the autosurface parameter is set. The two types of surface plots are a single surface of the image at the marked position and before and after plots for a change.

Regions of the image to be examined or edited are selected by one or two cursor commands. The single cursor commands define the center of an aperture. The shape of the aperture, circular or square, is specified by the aperture parameter and the radius (or half the edge of a square) is specified by the radius parameter. The radius may be zero to select a single pixel. The keys + and - may be used to quickly increment or decrement the current radius. The two keystroke commands either define the corners of a rectangular region or the endpoints of a line.

Because it is sometimes difficult to mark cursor position precisely the defined region may be shifted so that the center is either a local maximum or minimum. This is usually desired for editing cosmicrays, bad pixels, and stars. The center pixel of the aperture is moved within a specified search radius given by parameter search . If the search radius is zero then the region defined by the cursor is not adjusted. The sign of the search radius selects whether a maximum (positive value) or a minimum (negative value) is sought. The special key t toggles between the two modes in order to quickly edit both low sensitivity bad pixels and cosmicrays and stars.

Once a region has been defined a background region may be required to estimate the background for replacement. The background region is an annulus of the same shape separated by a buffer width, given by the parameter buffer , and having a width given by the parameter width .

The replacement options are described below as is a summary of all the commands. Two commands requiring a little more description are the space and p commands. These print the statistics at the cursor position for the current aperture and background parameters. The printout gives the x and y position of the aperture center (after the search if any), the pixel value (z) at that pixel, the mean background subtracted flux in the aperture, the number of pixels in the aperture, the mean background "sky", the sigma of the background residuals from the background fit, and the number of pixels in the background region. The p key additionally prints the pixel values in the aperture. Beware of apertures with radii greater than 5 since they will wrap around in an 80 column terminal.

When done editing or examining an image exit with q or Q. The former saves the modified image in the output image (which might be the same as the input image) while the latter does not save the modified image. Note that if the image has not been modified then no output occurs. After exiting the next image in the input list is edited. One may also change input images using the ":input" command. Note that this command sets the output to be the same as the input and a subsequent ":output" command should be used to define a different output image name. A final useful colon command is ":write" which forces the current editor buffer to be written. This can be used to save partial changes.


The parameters "minvalue" and "maxvalue" are may be used to limit the range of values modified. The default is to modify all pixels which are selected as described below.

a, b
Replace rectangular or aperture regions by background values. A background surface is fit the pixels in the background annulus if the x and y orders are greater than zero otherwise a median is computed. The x and y orders of the surface function are given by the xorder and yorder parameters. The median is used or the surface is evaluated for the pixels in the replacement region. If a positive sigma is specified then gaussian noise is added. If a sigma of INDEF is specified then the residuals of the background pixels are sorted, the upper and lower 10% are excluded, and the remainder are randomly selected as additive noise.
c, f, l
Replace rectangular or line regions by interpolation from the nearest background column or line. The f line option interpolates across the narrowest dimension; i.e. for lines nearer to the line axis interpolation is by lines while for those nearer to the column axis interpolation is by columns. The buffer region applies but only the nearest background pixel at each line or column on either side of the replacement region is used for interpolation. Gaussian noise may be added but background sampling is not available. This method is similar to the method used in fixpix or ccdred with no buffer. For "fixpix" type input the type of interpolation is automatically selected for the narrower dimension with column interpolation for square regions.
d, e, v
Replace rectangular, aperture, or vector regions by the specified constant value. This may be used to flag pixels or make masks. The vector option makes a line between two points with a width set by the radius value.
j, k
Replace rectangular or aperture regions in the editor buffer by the data from the input image. This may be used to undo any change. Note that the i command can be used to completely reinitialize the editor buffer from the input image.
m, n
Replace an aperture region by another aperture region. There is no centering applied in this option. The aperture region to copy is background subtracted using the background annulus for median or surface fitting. This data may then be added to the destination aperture or replace the data in the destination aperture. In the latter case the destination background surface is also computed and added.
Undo the last change. When a change is made the before and after data are saved. An undo exchanges the two sets of data. Note that it is possible to undo an undo to restore a change. If any other command is used which causes data to be read (including the statistics and surface plotting) then the undo is lost.
=, <, >
The all pixels with a value equal to that of the pixel at the cursor position are replaced by the specified constant value. This is intented for editing detection masks where detected objects have specific mask values.



	?	Print help
	:	Colon commands (see below)
	<space>	Statistics
	g	Surface graph
	i	Initialize (start over without saving changes)
	q	Quit and save changes
	p	Print box of pixel values and statistics
	r	Redraw image display
	s	Surface plot at cursor
	t	Toggle between minimum and maximum search
	+	Increase radius by one
	-	Decrease radius by one
	I	Interrupt task immediately
	Q	Quit without saving changes

The following editing options are available. Rectangular, line, and vector regions are specified with two positions and aperture regions are specified by one position. The current aperture type (circular or square) is used in the latter case. The move option takes two positions, the position to move from and the position to move to.

	a 	Background replacement (rectangle)
	b 	Background replacement (aperture)
	c 	Column interpolation (rectangle)
	d 	Constant value substitution (rectangle)
	e 	Constant value substitution (aperture)
	f	Interpolation across line (line)
	j	Replace with input data (rectangle)
	k	Replace with input data (aperture)
	l 	Line interpolation (rectangle)
	m	Copy by replacement (aperture)
	n	Copy by addition (aperture)
	u	Undo last change (see also 'i', 'j', and 'k')
	v	Constant value substitution (vector)
	=	Constant value substitution of pixels equal
		    to pixel at the cursor position
	<	Constant value substitution of pixels less than or equal
		    to pixel at the cursor position
	>	Constant value substitution of pixels greater than or equal
		    to pixel at the cursor position

When the image display provides a fill option then the effect of zoom and roam is provided by loading image sections. This is a temporary mechanism which will eventually be replaced by a more sophisticated image display interface.

	E	Exapnd image display
	P	Pan image display
	R	Redraw image display
	Z	Zoom image display
	0	Redraw image display with no zoom
	1-9	Shift display


The colon either print the current value of a parameter when there is no value or set the parameter to the specified value.

angh [value]		Horizontal viewing angle (degrees)
angv [value]		Vertical viewing angle (degrees)
aperture [type]		Aperture type (circular|square)
autodisplay [yes|no]	Automatic image display?
autosurface [yes|no]	Automatic surface plots?
buffer [value]		Background buffer width
command [string]	Display command
display [yes|no]	Display image?
eparam			Edit parameters
graphics [device]	Graphics device
input [image]		New input image to edit (output name = input)
output [image]		New output image name
radius [value]		Aperture radius
search [value]		Search radius
sigma [value]		Noise sigma (INDEF for histrogram replacement)
value [value]		Constant substitution value
minvalue [value]	Minimum value for modification (INDEF=minimum)
maxvalue [value]	Maximum value for modification (INDEF=maximum)
width [value]		Background annulus width
write [name]		Write changes to name (default current output) 
xorder [value]		X order for background fitting
yorder [value]		Y order for background fitting




1. Interactively edit an image.

cl> imedit raw002 ed002

2. Edit pixels noninteractively from an x-y list. Replace the original images by the edited images.

	cl> head bad
	20 32
	40 91
	cl> imedit raw* "" cursor=bad display-

3. It is possible to use a contour plot for image display. This is really not very satisfactory but can be used in desparation.

	cl> reset stdimcur=stdgraph
	cl> display.command="contour $image >& dev$null"
	cl> imedit raw002 ed002

4. Use a "fixpix" file (without trim option).

	cl> head fixpix
	20 22 30 80
	99 99 1 500
	cl> imedit raw* %raw%ed%* cursor=fixpix fixpix+ display-


The v option was added to allow vector replacement. The =, <, > options were added to replace values matching the pixel at the cursor.
IMEDIT V2.11.2
The temporary editor image was changed to use a unique temporary image name beginning with "imedit" rather than the fixed name of "epixbuf".
If xorder or yorder are zero then a median background is computed for the a and b keys.
IMEDIT V2.10.4
The u, j, k, and n keys were added to those recorded in the log file.
This task is a first version of what will be an evolving task. Additional features and options will be added as they are suggested. It is also a prototype using a very limited display interface; execution of a separate display command. Much better interaction with a variety of image displays will be provided after a planned "image display interface" is implemented. Therefore any deficiencies in this area should be excused.

The zoom and roam features provided here are quite useful. However, they depend on a feature of the tv.display program which fills the current image display window by pixel replication or interpolation. If this is left out of the display command these features will not work. The trick is that this task displays sections of the editor buffer whose size and position is based on an internal zoom and center and the display program expands the section to fill the display.

The surface plotting is done using an imported package. The limitations of this package (actually limitations in the complexity of interfacing the application to this sophisticated package) mean that the surface plots are always scaled to the range of the data and that it is not possible to label the graph or use the graphics cursor to point at features for the task.


ccdred.instruments proto.fixpix

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