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imexamine -- examine images using image display, plots, and text


imexamine [input [frame]]


Optional list of images to be examined. If specified, images are examined in turn, displaying them automatically. If no images are specified the images currently loaded into the image display are examined.
output = ""
Rootname for output images created with the t key. If no name is specified then the name of the input image is used. A three digit number is appended to the rootname, such as ".001", starting with 1 until no image is found with that name. Thus, succesive output images with the same rootname will be numbered sequentially.
ncoutput = 101, nloutput = 101
Size of the output image created with the t key which is centered on the position of the cursor.
frame = 1
During program execution, a query parameter specifiying the frame to be loaded. May also be specified on the command line when imexamine is used as a task to display a new image, to specify the frame to be loaded.
Query parameter for selecting images to be loaded.
logfile = ""
Logfile filename in which to record output of the commands producing text. If no filename is given then no logfile will be kept.
keeplog = no
Log output results initially? Logging can be toggled interactively during program execution.
defkey = "a"
Default key for cursor x-y input list. This key is applied to input cursor lists which do not have a cursor key specified. It is used to repetitively apply a cursor command to a list of positions typically obtained from another task.
autoredraw = yes
Automatically redraw graphs after a parameter change? If no then graphs are only drawn when a graph or redraw command is given. If yes then colon commands which modify a parameter of the last graph will automatically redraw the graph. A common example of this would be changing the graph limits.
allframes = yes
Use all frames for displaying images? If set, images from the input list are loaded cycling through the available frames. If not set the last frame loaded is reused.
nframes = 0
Number of display frames. When automatically loading images from the input list only this number of frames will be used. This should, of course, not exceed the number of frames provided by the display device. If the number of frames is set to 0 then the task will query the display device to determine how many frames are currently allocated. New frames may be allocated during program execution by displaying images with the d key.
ncstat = 5, nlstat = 5
The statistics command computes values from a box centered on the specified cursor position with the number of columns and lines given by these parameters.
graphcur = ""
Graphics cursor input. If null the standard graphics cursor is used whenever graphics cursor input is requested. A cursor file in the appropriate format may be substituted by specifying the name of the file.
imagecur = ""
Image display cursor input. If null the standard image display cursor is used whenever image cursor input is requested. A cursor file in the appropriate format may be substituted by specifying the name of the file. Also the image cursor may be changed to query the graphics device or the terminal by setting the environment parameter "stdimcur" to "stdgraph" or "text" respectively.
wcs = "logical"
The world coordinate system (wcs ) to be used for axis labeling when input is from images. The following standard world systems are predefined.
Logical coordinates are image pixel coordinates relative to the image currently being displayed.
The physical coordinate system is invariant with respect to linear transformations of the physical image matrix. For example, if the reference image was created by extracting a section of another image, the physical coordinates of an object in the reference image will be the pixel coordinates of the same object in the original image. The physical coordinate system thus provides a consistent coordinate system (a given object always has the same coordinates) for all images, regardless of whether any user world coordinate systems have been defined.
The "world" coordinate system is the current default WCS . The default world system is the system named by the environment variable defwcs if defined in the user environment and present in the reference image WCS description, else it is the first user WCS defined for the image (if any), else physical coordinates are returned.
xformat = "", yformat = ""
The numerical format for the world coordinate labels in the line and column plots and the format for printing world coordinates. The values may be "" (an empty string), %f for decimal format, %h and %H for xx:xx:xx format, and %m and %M for xx:xx.x format. The upper case %H and %M convert degrees to hours. Images sometimes include recommended coordinate formats as WCS attributes. These are used if the format specified by these parameters is "". Any other value will override the image attribute.

In addition to these three reserved WCS names, the name of any user WCS defined for the reference image may be given. A user world coordinate system may be any linear or nonlinear world system.

graphics = "stdgraph"
Graphics output device. Normally this is the standard graphics device specified by the environment variable "stdgraph".
display = "display(image=$1,frame=$2)"
Command template used to display an image. The image to be displayed is substituted for argument $1 and the frame for argument $2. Any display task may be used for image display by modifying this template.
use_display = yes
Use the image display? Set to no to disable all interaction with the display device, e.g., when working at a terminal that does not provide image display capabilities.


The various graphs and the aperture sum command have parameters defined in additional parameter sets. The parameter sets are hidden tasks with the first character being the cursor command graph key that uses the parameters followed by "imexam". The parameter sets are:

    cimexam    Parameters for column plots
    eimexam    Parameters for contour plots
    himexam    Parameters for histogram plots
    jimexam    Parameters for line 1D gaussian fit plots
    kimexam    Parameters for column 1D gaussian fit plots
    limexam    Parameters for line plots
    rimexam    Parameters for radial profile plots and aperture sums
    simexam    Parameters for surface plots
    vimexam    Parameters for vector plots (centered and endpoint)

The same parameters dealing with graph formats occur in many of the parameter sets while some are specific only to one parameter set. In the summary below those common to more than one parameter set are shown only once. The characters in parenthesis are the graph key prefixes for the paraemter sets in which the parameter occurs.

angh = -33., angv = 25. (s)
Horizontal and vertical viewing angles (degrees) for surface plots.
autoscale = yes (h)
In the case of integer data, automatically adjust nbins and z2 to avoid aliasing effects.
axes = yes (s)
Draw axes along edge of surface plots?
background = yes (jkr.)
Fit and subtract a background for aperture sums, 1D gaussian fits, and radial profile plots?
banner = yes (cehjklrsv.)
Add a standard banner to a graph? The standard banner includes the IRAF user and host identification and time, the image name and title, and graph specific parameters.
beta = INDEF (ar.)
Beta value to use for Moffat profile fits. If the value is INDEF the value will be determine as part of the fit otherwise the parameter will be fixed at the specified value.
boundary = "constant" (v)
Boundary extension for vector plots in which the averaging width might go outside of the image.
box = yes (cehjklrv.)
Draw graph box and axes?
buffer = 5. (r.)
Buffer distance from object aperture of background annulus for aperture sums and radial profile plots.
ceiling = INDEF (es)
Ceiling data value for contour and surface plots. A value of INDEF does not apply a ceiling. (In contour plots a value of 0. also does not apply a ceiling.)
center = yes (jkr.)
Apply a centering algorithm for doing aperture sums, 1D guassian fits, and radial profile plots?
constant = 0. (v)
Boundary extension constant for vector plots in which the averaging width might go outside of the image.
dashpat = (e)
Dash pattern for negative contours.
fill = no (e)
Fill the output viewport regardless of the device aspect ratio?
fitplot = yes (r.)
Overplot the profile fit on the radial profile data?
fittype = "moffat" (ar.)
Profile type to fit the radial profile data? The choices are "gaussian" and "moffat".
floor = INDEF (es)
Floor data value for contour and surface plots. A value of INDEF does not apply a floor. (In contour plots a value of 0. also does not apply a floor.)
interval = (e)
Contour interval. If 0, a contour interval is chosen which places 20 to 30 contours spanning the intensity range of the image.
iterations = (ar)
Number of iterations to adjust the fitting radius.
label= no (e)
Label the major contours in the contour plot?
logx = no, logy = no (chjklrv.)
Plot the x or y axis logarithmically? The default for histogram plots is to plot the y axis logarithmically.
magzero = 25. (r.)
Magnitude zero point for aperture sums.
majrx=5, minrx=5, majry=5, minry=(cehjklrv.)
Maximum number of major tick marks on each axis and number of minor tick marks between major tick marks.
marker = "box" (chjklrv.)
Marker to be drawn if pointmode = yes. Markers are "point", "box", "cross", "plus", "circle", "hebar", "vebar", "hline", "vline" or "diamond".
naverage = (cjklv)
Number of lines, columns, or width perpendicular to a vector to be averaged.
nbins = (h)
The number of bins in, or resolution of, histogram plots.
ncolumns = 21, nlines = (ehs)
Number of columns and lines used in contour, histogram, and surface plots.
ncontours = (e)
Number of contours to be drawn. If 0, the contour interval may be specified, otherwise 20-30 nicely spaced contours are drawn. A maximum of 40 contours can be drawn.
nhi = -(e)
If -1, highs and lows are not marked. If 0, highs and lows are marked on the plot. If 1, the intensity of each pixel is marked on the plot.
pointmode = no (chlv)
Plot points or marks instead of lines?
pointmode = yes (jkr.)
Plot points or marks instead of lines? For radial profile plots point mode should always be yes.
radius = 5. (r.)
Radius of aperture for aperture sums and centering.
round = no (cehjklrv.)
Extend the axes up to "nice" values?
rplot = 8. (jkr.)
Radius to which the radial profile or 1D profile fits are plotted.
sigma = 2. (jk)
Initial guess for 1D gaussian fits. The value is in pixels even if the fitting is done in world coordinates. This must be close to the true value for convergence. Also the four times the initial sigma is used to define the distance to the background region for the initial background estimate.
szmarker = (chjklrv.)
Size of mark (except for points). A positive size less than 1 specifies a fraction of the device size. Values of 1, 2, 3, and 4 signify default sizes of increasing size.
ticklabels = yes (cehjklrv.)
Label the tick marks?
title = "" (cehjklrsv.)
User title. This is independent of the the standard banner title.
top_closed = no (h)
Include z2 in the top histogram bin? Each bin of the histogram is a subinterval that is half open at the top. Top_closed decides whether those pixels with values equal to z2 are to be counted in the histogram. If top_closed is yes, the top bin will be larger than the other bins.
width = 5. (jkr.)
Width of background region for background subtraction in aperture sums, 1D profile fits, and radial profile plots.
wcs = "physical"
World coordinate system for axis labeling and coordinate readback.
x= INDEF, x2 = INDEF, y1 = INDEF, y2 = INDEF (chjklrv.)
Range of graph along each axis. If INDEF the range is determined from the data range plus a buffer. The default y1 for histogram plots is 0.
xformat, yformat
Set world image coordinate formats. Any format changes take effect on the next usage; i.e. there is no automatic redrawing.
xlabel, ylabel (cehjklrv.)
Axis labels. Each graph type has an appropriate default. If the label value is "wcslabel" then the coordinate label from the image WCS will be used if defined.
xorder = (jk)
Order for 1D gaussian background. If 0 then a median is computed. If 1 then a constant background is fit simultaneously with the other gaussian parameters. If 2 then a linear background is fit simultaneously with the other gaussian parameters.
xorder = 0, yorder = (r.)
If either parameter is zero then the median value of the background annulus is used for background subtraction in aperture sums and radial profile plots. Values greater than zero define polynomial surface orders for background subtraction. The orders are actually the number of polynomial terms. An order of 1 is a constant an order of 2 is a plane.
zero = 0. (e)
Greyscale value of the zero contour, i.e., the value of a zero point shift to be applied to the image data before plotting. Does not affect the values of the floor and ceiling parameters.
z= INDEF, z2 = INDEF (h)
Range of pixel values to be used in histogram. INDEF values default to the range in the region being histogramed.


Images are examined using an image display, various types of plots, and text output. Commands are given using the image display cursor and/or graphics cursor. This task brings together many of the features of the IRAF image display and graphics facilities with some simple image analysis capabilities.


If use_display is yes the image display is used to examine images. When no input list is specified images may be loaded with the d key, frames selected with n, p, and ":select", and the scaled contents of the display frame buffer examined if the image itself is not available.

When an input list is specified the n, p, and ":select" allow moving about the list and new images may be added to the end of the list with d. Images are automatically loaded as they are selected if not currently loaded. Two parameters control how the frames are loaded. The nframes parameter determines which frames are available. Within the available frames images may be loaded by cycling through them if allframes is yes or in the last loaded frame (initially frame 1) if it is no.

When reading the image cursor the frame and the name of the image in the frame are determined. Therefore images may also be selected by changing the frame externally or if the image cursor input is changed from the standard image display to text or file input.

The d command displays an image using the template CL command given by parameter display . Usually this is the standard IRAF tv.display command though in some cirmcumstances other commands like plot.contour may be used. This command may be used to display an image even if use_display is no.

This task is generally intended for interactive use with an image display. However it is possible to disable use of the image display and change the image cursor input to a graphics cursor, a file, or typed in by the user. In this case an input image list is most appropriate but if one is missing, a query will be issued each time a command requiring an image is given.


Commands are given using cursor input. Generally the image cursor is used to select points in the images to be examined and the key typed selects a particular operation. In addition to the image cursor the graphics cursor is sometimes useful. First, it gives access to the graphics cursor mode commands (see cursors ) such as annotating, saving or printing a graph, expanding and roaming, and printing cursor positions. Second, it can give a better perspective on the data for cursor positions than the image cursor. And lastly, it may be needed when an image display is not available. The commands g and i select between the graphics and image cursors. Initially the image cursor is read.

Interpretation of the graph coordinate in terms of an image coordinate depends on the type of graph as described below.

contour plot
This gives image coordinates directly and both the x and y cursor values are used.
column plot
The x cursor position gives the line coordinate and the column coordinate used for the plot (that specified before averaging) gives the column coordinate.
line plot
The x cursor position gives the column coordinate and the line coordinate used for the plot (that specified before averaging) gives the line coordinate.
vector plot
The x cursor position defines a column and line coordinate along the vector plotted.
surface plot
No cursor information is available in this plot and the cursor position used to make the surface plot (the center of the surface) is used again.
histogram plot
No cursor information is available in this plot and the cursor position used to make the histogram (the center of the box) is used again.
radial profile plot
No cursor information is available in this plot and the cursor position used to define the center is used again.

There are some special features associated with cursor input in IRAF which might be useful in some circumstances. The image display cursor can be reset to be a text cursor, graphics cursor, or image cursor by setting the environment variable "stdimcur" to "text", "stdgraph", or "stdimage" respectively. Text cursor input consists of the x and y coordinates, a frame number, and the key or colon command. Another form of text input is to set the value of the cursor input parameter to a file containing cursor commands. There are two special features dealing with text cursor input. If only x and y are entered the default key parameter defkey determines the command. This is particularly useful if one has a list of pixel positions prepared by some other program. The second feature is that for commands not requiring coordinates they may be left out and the command key or colon command entered.


The following commands produce text output which may also be appended to a logfile.

a, ','
Circular aperture photometry is performed at the position of the cursor. If the centering option is selected the cursor position is used as the initial point for computing the central moments of the marginal distributions in x and y. The marginal distributions are obtained from a square aperture with edge dimensions of twice the aperture radius parameter. Only the pixels above the mean are used in computing the central moments. If the central moments are in a different pixel than that used for extracting the marginal distributions the computation is repeated using the new center.

The radius of the photometry and fitting aperture is specified by the radius parameter and the iteration parameter. Iteration of the fitting radius and printing of the final radius is only done for the a key. If the number of iterations is one then the radius is not adjusted. If it is greater than one then the direct FWHM (described) below is used to adjust the radius. At each iteration the new radius is set to three times the direct FWHM (which is six times the radius at half-maximum). The radius is printed as part of the output.

If the background subtraction option is selected a concentric circular annulus is defined. The inner edge is separated from the object aperture by a specified buffer distance and the outer edge is defined by a width for the annulus. The type of background used is determined by the parameters xorder and yorder . If either parameter is zero then a median of the background annulus is determined. If 1 or greater a polynomial surface of the specified number of terms is fit. Typically the orders are 1 for a constant or 2 for a plane. The median or fitted surface values within the object aperture are then subtracted.

The flux within the circular aperture is computed by simply summing the pixel values with centers within the specified radius of the center position. No partial pixel adjustments are made. If the flux is positive a magnitude is computed as

magnitude = magzero - 2.5 * log10 (flux)

where the magnitude zero point is a user defined parameter.

In addition to the flux, the second intensity momemnts are used to compute an ellipticity and position angle. The equations defining the moments and related parameters are:

	Mxx = sum (x * x * I) / sum (I)
	Myy = sum (y * y * I) / sum (I)
	Mxy = sum (x * y * I) / sum (I)
	e = sqrt ((Mxx - Myy) ** 2 + (2 * Mxy) ** 2) / (Mxx + Myy)
	pa = 0.5 * atan (2 * Mxy / (Mxx - Myy))

A nonlinear least squares profile of fixed center and zero background is fit to the radius and flux values of the background subtracted pixels to determine a peak intensity and FWHM. The profile type is set by the fittype parameter. The choices are "gaussian" and "moffat". If the profile type is "moffat" there is an additional parameter "beta". This value may be specifed to fix it or given as INDEF to also be determined. The profile equations are:

	I = Ic exp (-0.5 * (r / sigma)**2)	(fittype = "gaussian")
	I = Ic (1 + (r / alpha)**2)**(-beta)	(fittype = "moffat")

where Ic is the peak value, r is the radius, and the parameters are sigma, alpha, and beta. The sigma and alpha values are converted to FWHM in the reported results.

Weights which are the inverse square of the pixel radius are used. This has the effect of giving equal weight to all parts of the profile instead of being overwhelmed by the larger number of pixels are larger radii. An additional weighting factor is used for pixels outside the half-maximum radius (as determined using the algorithm described below). The weights are

	wt = exp (-(r/rhalf - 1)**2)  for r/rhalf > 1

where rhalf is the radius at half-maximum. This has the effect of reducing the contribution of the profile wings.

The above fit is done to the individual pixel values with a radius measured to the center of the pixel. For the a key two additional measurements are made on a azimuthally averaged radial profile with a finer sampling of the radial bins. This uses the same algorithms for centering, background estimation, and FWHM measurement as in the task psfmeasure . The centering is essentially the same as described above but the background estimation is a mode of the sky annulus pixels. Note that the centering and background subtraction are done for these measurements regardless of the the center and background parameters which apply only to the photometry and profile fitting to the individual pixel values.

To form the radially smoothed profile an image interpolator function is fit to the region containing the object. The enclosed flux profile (total flux within a particular radius) is computed. The sampling is done at a much finer resolution than individual pixels. The subsampling scheme is that described in psfmeasure and is such that the center of the profile is more finely sampled than the edges of the profile.

Because the image interpolator function may not be very good for narrow profiles a second iteration is done if the radius enclosing half the flux is less than two pixels. In this second iteration an analytic, radially symmetric Gaussian profile is subtracted from the image raster and the interpolation function is fit to the residuals. Subpixel values are then computed by evaluating the analytic function plus the interpolated residual value.

There are two FWHM measurements computed using the enclosed flux radial profile. One is to fit a Gaussian or Moffat profile to the enclosed flux profile. The type is selected by the same fittype parameter used to select the profile to fit to the individual pixel values. As with the direct fit the Moffat beta value may be fixed or included in the fit. The FWHM of the fit is then printed on the status line, terminal output, and log file.

The other FWHM measurement directly measure the FWHM independent of a profile model. The derivative of the enclosed flux profile is computed. This derivative is the azimuthally averaged radial profile with the radial bin sampling mentioned above. The peak of this profile is found and the FWHM is twice the radius of the profile at half the peak value. This "direct FWHM" is part of the output and is also used for the iterative adjustment of the fitting radius as noted above.

The output consists of the image line and column, the coordinates, the final radius used for the photometry and fitting, magnitude, flux, mean background, peak value of the profile fit, e, pa (in degrees between -90 and +90 with 0 along the x axis), the Moffat beta value if a Moffat profile is fit, and three measures of the FWHM. The coordinates are those specified by the wcs and formated by the format parameters. For the logical wcs the coordinates will be the same as the column and line values. If a value is numerically undefined then INDEF is printed. The FWHM values are, in order, the profile fit to the enclosed flux, the profile fit to the individual pixels, and the direct measurement from the derivative of the enclosed flux profile. Note that except for the direct method, the other estimates are not really measurements of the FWHM but are quantities which give the correct FWHM for the specified profile type.
The output consists of the image line and column, magnitude, flux, number of pixels within the aperture, mean background, r (moment FWHM), e, pa (in degrees between -90 and +90 with 0 along the x axis), and the peak value and FWHM of the profile fit. The label GFWHM indicates a Gaussian fit while the label MFWHM indicates a Moffat profile fit. If a quantity is numerically undefined then INDEF is printed.

This aperture photometry and FWHM tool is intended only for general image analysis and quick look measurements. The background fitting, photometry, and FWHM techniques used are not intended for serious astronomical photometry; other packages, e.g., noao.digiphot.apphot , should be used if precise results are are desired.

The integer pixel coordinates defining a region of the image are printed. Two cursor positions are used to select sthe range of columns and lines. The output format consists of the starting and ending column coordinates and the starting and ending line coordinates. This format is used as input by some tasks and can be used to generate image sections if desired.
j, k
The fitted gaussian center, peak, sigma, full width at half maximum, and background at the center is computed and printed.
Statistics of a rectangular region centered on the cursor position are computed and printed. The size of the statistics box is set by the parameters ncstat and nlstat . The output format consists of the image section, the number of pixels, the mean, the median, the standard deviation, the minimum, and the maximum.
x, y
The cursor x and y coordinates and the pixel value nearest this position are printed. The y key may be used define a relative origin. If an origin is defined (is not 0,0) then additional quantities are printed. These quantities are origin coordinates, the delta x and delta y distances, the radial distance, and the position angle (in degrees counterclockwise from the x axis).
A 10x10 grid of pixel values is printed. The integer coordinates are also printed around the grid.


The following commands produce graphics output to the specified graphics device (normally the graphics terminal).

A plot of a column or average of columns is made with the line number as the ordinate and the pixel value as the abscissa. The averaging number and various graph options are specified by the parameters from the cimexam parameter set.
A contour plot of a region centered on the cursor is made. The size of the region and various contouring and labeling options are specified by the parameters from the eimexam parameter set.
A histogram of a region centered on the cursor is made. The size of the region and various binning parameters are specified by the parameters from the himexam parameter set.
A plot of a line or average of lines is made with the column number as the ordinate and the pixel value as the abscissa. The averaging number and various graph options are specified by the parameters from the limexam parameter set.
r, '.'
A radial profile plot is made. As with a/',' there are options for centering and background subtraction. There are also graphics option to set the radius to be plotted (rplot ) and to overplot the profile fit (fitplot ). The measurement algorithms are those described for the a/',' key and the output is the same except that there is no header line and the object center is given in the graph title rather than on the graphics status line. The aperture sum and graph options are specified by the parameters from the rimexam parameter set.
A surface plot of a region centered on the cursor is made. The size of the region and various surface and labeling options are specified by the parameters from the simexam parameter set.
u, v
A plot of a vector defined by two cursor positions is made. The u plot uses the first cursor position to define the center of the vector and the second position to define the endpoint. The vector is extended an equal distance in the opposite direction and the graph x coordinates are the radial distance from the center position. The v plot uses the two cursor positions as endpoints and the coordinates are the radial distance from the first cursor position. The vector may be averaged over a specified number of parallel vectors. The averaging number and various graph options are specified by the parameters from the vimexam parameter set.


The following commands control useful features of the task.

The display command given by the parameter display is given with appropriate image name. By default this loads the image display using the tv.display task. When using an input image list this operation also appends new images to the list for subsequent n and p commands.
Redraw the last graph. If the autoredraw parameter is no then this is used to redraw a graph after making parameter changes with colon commands. If the parameter is yes then any colon command which affects the current plot will execute a redraw automatically.
g, i
Cursor input may be selected to be from the graphics cursor (g) or image display cursor (i).
n, p
Go to the next or previous image in the image list or display frames.
Overplot the next graph. This generally only makes sense with the line, column, and histogram plots.
Quit the task.
Output an image centered on the cursor position with name and size set by the output , ncoutput and nloutput parameters. Note that the cursor input might be from a contour, surface, or other plot as well as from the image display.
Toggle output to the logfile. If no logfile is specified this has no effect except to print a message. If the logfile is specified a message is printed indicating that the logfile has been opened or closed. Everytime the logfile is opened the current image name and title is entered as well as when the image is changed. The logfile name may be set or changed by a colon command.
Select an image. If an input image list is used the specified index number selects an image from the list. If an input image list is not used and the image display is used then the specified display frame is selected. If the new image is different from the previous image an identification line is inserted in the logfile if it is open.
:eparam, :unlearn
These colon commands manipulate the various parameter sets as described below.
:c<#>, :l<#>
Special colon commands to plot specific columns or lines, symbolically shown as <#>, rather than use a cusor position.
:<column> <line> <key>
Special colon command syntax to explicitly give image coordinates for a cursor command key.


Sometimes one wants to explicitly enter the coordinates for a command. This may be done with a colon command having the following syntax:

:<column> <line> <key>

where column and line are the coordinates and key is the command. If the line is not given then <column> = <line>. For the frequently used line and column plots there is also the simple syntax:

	:c<column> 	or	:l<line>

with no space, e.g., ":l64".

Every parameter except the input image list and the display command may be queried or set by a colon command. In addition the parameter sets for the various graphs and aperture sum algorithm may be edited using the eparam editor and reinitialized to default values using the unlearn command. There are a large number of parameters as well as many graph types / parameter sets. To achieve some consistency and order as well as simplify the colon commands several things have been done.

Many parameters occur in more than one graph type. This includes things like graph labeling, tickmarks, and so forth. When issuing a colon command for one of these parameters the current graph type is assumed to be the one affected. If the graph type is wrong or no graph has been made then a warning is given.

If the parameter only occurs in one parameter set then the colon command may be used with any current graph. However, if the parameter affects the current graph and the automatic redraw option is set then the graph will be redrawn.

The eparam and unlearn commands also apply by default to the parameters for the current graph. However, they may take the keystroke character for the graph as an argument to override this. If the current graph parameters are changed and the automatic redraw option is set then the graph will be redrawn.

The important colon commands x and y affect the x1, y1, x2, y2 parameters in most of the graphs. They are frequently used to override the automatic graph scaling. If no arguments are given the window limits are set to INDEF resulting in plotting the full range of the data plus a buffer. If two values are given then only that range of the data will be plotted.


Cursor Keys

?	Print help
a	Aperture sum, moment parameters, and profile fit
b	Box coordinates for two cursor positions - c1 c2 l1 l2
c	Column plot
d	Load the image display
e	Contour plot
f	Redraw the last graph
g	Graphics cursor
h	Histogram plot
i	Image cursor
j	Fit 1D gaussian to image lines
k	Fit 1D gaussian to image columns
l	Line plot
m	Statistics
	    image[section] npixels mean median stddev min max
n	Next frame or image
o	Overplot
p	Previous frame or image
q	Quit
r	Radial profile plot with fit and aperture sum values
s	Surface plot
t	Output image centered on cursor (parameters output, ncoutput, nloutput)
u	Centered vector plot from two cursor positions
v	Vector plot between two cursor positions
w	Toggle write to logfile
x	Print coordinates
	    col line pixval [xorign yorigin dx dy r theta]
y	Set origin for relative positions
z	Print grid of pixel values - 10 x 10 grid
,	Quick Gaussian/Moffat photometry
.	Quick Gaussian/Moffat radial profile plot and fit

Colon Commands

Explicit image coordinates may be entered using the colon command syntax:

:<column> <line> <key>

where column and line are the image coordinates and the key is one of the cursor keys. A special syntax for line or column plots is also available as :c# or :l# where # is a column or line and no space is allowed.

Other colon commands set or show parameters governing the plots and other features of the task. Each graph type has it's own set of parameters. When a parameter applies to more than one graph the current graph is assumed. If the current graph is not applicable then a warning is given. The "eparam" and "unlearn" commands may be used to change many parameters and without an argument the current graph parameters are modified while with the graph key as an argument the appropriate parameter set is modified. In the list below the graph key(s) to which a parameter applies are shown.

allframes               Cycle through all display frames to display images
angh        s           Horizontal angle for surface plot
angv        s           Vertical angle for surface plot
autoredraw  cehlrsuv    Automatically redraw graph after colon command?
autoscale   h           Adjust number of histogram bins to avoid aliasing
axes        s           Draw axes in surface plot?
background  jkr         Subtract background for radial plot and photometry?
banner      cehjklrsuv  Include standard banner on plots?
beta        ar		Moffat beta parameter (INDEF to fit or value to fix)
boundary    uv          Boundary extension type for vector plots
box         cehjklruv   Draw box around graph?
buffer      r           Buffer distance for background subtraction
ceiling     es          Data ceiling for contour and surface plots
center      jkr         Find center for radial plot and photometry?
constant    uv          Constant value for boundry extension in vector plots
dashpat     e           Dash pattern for contour plot
eparam      cehjklrsuv  Edit parameters
fill        e           Fill viewport vs enforce unity aspect ratio?
fitplot     r           Overplot profile fit on data?
fittype     ar          Profile fitting type (gaussian|moffat)
floor       es          Data floor for contour and surface plots
interval    e           Contour interval (0 for default)
iterations  ar          Iterations on fitting radius
label       e           Draw axis labels for contour plot?
logfile                 Log file name
logx        chjklruv    Plot x axis logrithmically?
logy        chjklruv    Plot y axis logrithmically?
magzero     r           Magnitude zero for photometry
majrx       cehjklruv   Number of major tick marks on x axis
majry       cehjklruv   Number of major tick marks on y axis
marker      chjklruv    Marker type for graph
minrx       cehjklruv   Number of minor tick marks on x axis
minry       cehjklruv   Number of minor tick marks on y axis
naverage    cjkluv      Number of columns, lines, vectors to average
nbins       h           Number of histogram bins
ncolumns    ehs         Number of columns in contour, histogram, or surface plot
ncontours   e           Number of contours (0 for default)
ncoutput                Number of columns in output image
ncstat                  Number of columns in statistics box
nhi         e           hi/low marking option for contours
nlines      ehs         Number of lines in contour, histogram, or surface plot
nloutput                Number of lines in output image
nlstat                  Number of lines in statistics box
output			Output image root name
pointmode   chjkluv     Plot points instead of lines?
radius      r           Radius of object aperture for radial plot and photmetry
round       cehjklruv   Round axes to nice values?
rplot       jkr         Radius to plot in 1D and radial profile plots
select                  Select image or display frame
sigma       jk          Initial sigma for 1D gaussian fits
szmarker    chjklruv    Size of marks for point mode
ticklabels  cehjklruv   Label ticks?
title       cehjklrsuv  Optional title for graph
top_closed  h           Close last bin of histogram
unlearn     cehjklrsuv  Unlearn parameters to default values
wcs                     World coordinate system for axis labels and readback
width       jkr         Width of background region
x [min max] chjklruv    Range of x to be plotted (no values for autoscaling)
xformat			Coordinate format for column world coordinates
xlabel      cehjklrsuv  Optional label for x axis
xorder      jkr         X order of surface for background subtraction
y [min max] chjklruv    Range of y to be plotted (no values for autoscaling)
yformat			Coordinate format for line world coordinates
ylabel      cehjklrsuv  Optional label for y axis
yorder      r           Y order of surface for background subtraction
z1          h           Lower intensity value limit of histogram
z2          h           Upper intensity value limit of histogram
zero        e           Zero level for contour plot


The following example illustrates many of the features in a descriptive way using the standard image dev$pix.

  cl> imexam dev$pix nframes=2
  [The image is loaded in the display if not already loaded]
  <Image cursor> l          # Make a line plot
  <Image cursor> e          # Make a contour plot
  <image cursor> d          # Load a new image
  image name: saga
  display frame (1:) (1): 2
  <Image cursor> e          # Make a contour plot
  <Image cursor> g          # Switch to graphics cursor
  <Graph cursor> u          # Mark the center of a vector
  <Graph cursor> u          # Mark endpoint make a vector plot
  <Graph cursor> i          # Go back to display
  <Image cursor> r          # Select star and make radial plot
  <Image cursor> :rplot 10  # Set radius of plot
  <Image cursor> :epar      # Set radius plot parameters
  <Image cursor> c          # Make column plot
  <Image cursor> :100 l     # Line 100 of image 1
  <Image cursor> :20 30 e   # Contour plot at (20,30)
  <Image cursor> p          # Go to previous image
  <Image cursor> n          # Go to next image
  <Image cursor> :sel 1     # Select image 1
  <Image cursor> :log log   # Set log file
  <Image cursor> w          # Begin logging
  Log file log is open
  <Image cursor> a          # Do aperture sum on star 1
  <Image cursor> a          # Do aperture sum on star 2
  <Image cursor> a          # Do aperture sum on star 3
  <Image cursor> a          # Do aperture sum on star 4
  <Image cursor> w          # Close log file
  Log file log is closed
  <Image cursor> y          # Mark position of galaxy center
  <Image cursor> x          # Print position relative to center
  <Image cursor> x          # Print position relative to center
  <Image cursor> s          # Make surface plot
  <Image cursor> q          # Quit


If an operation is interrupted, e.g., an image display or surface plot, imexamine is terminated rather than the operation in progress.

When used on a workstation imexamine attempts to always position the cursor to the window (text, image, or graphics) from which input is being taken. Moving the mouse manually while the program is also trying to move it can cause the mouse to be positioned to the wrong window, requiring that it be manually moved to the window from which input is currently being taken.

When entering a colon command in image cursor mode, if one types too fast the characters typed before the mouse is moved to the input window will be lost. To avoid this, pause a moment after typing the colon, before entering the command, and verify that the mouse has been moved to the correct window. In the future colon command input will be entered without moving the mouse out of the image window, which will avoid the problem.


(t): A new cursor key to create an output image.
(a and r): The fit to the radial profile points now includes both a Gaussian and a Moffat profile. The Moffat profile exponent parameter, beta, may be fixed or left free to be fit.

(a and r): New estimates fo the FWHM were added to the a and r keys. These include the Moffat profile fit noted above, a direct measurement of the FWHM from the radially binned profile, and a Gaussian or Moffat fit to the radial enclosed flux profile. The output from these keys was modified to include the new information.

(a and r): The direct FWHM may be used to iteratively adjust the fitting radius to lessen the dependence on the initial fitting radius value.

(, and .): New keys to do the Gaussian or Moffat fitting without iteration or the enclosed flux and direct measurements. The output format is the same as the previous version.

(k): Added a kimexam parameter set.


cursors, eparam, unlearn, plot.*, tvmark, digiphot.*, apphot.*, implot, splot, imedit, radplt, imcntr, imhistogram, imstatistics, display psfmeasure.

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