SEE_ALSO

## NAME

lscombine -- Combine longslit images

## USAGE

`lscombine input output`

## PARAMETERS

- input
- List of input two-dimensional images to combine. This task is typically used with dispersion calibrated longslit images though it will work with any 2D images.

- output
- Output combined image.

- headers = "" (optional)
- Optional output multiextension FITS file where each extension is a dataless headers from each input image.

- bpmasks = "" (optional)
- Optional output bad pixel mask with good values of 0 and bad values of 1. Output pixels are marked as bad when no input pixels contributed to the output pixel. The file name is also added to the output image header under the keyword BPM.

- rejmask = "" (optional)
- Optional output mask file identifying rejected or excluded pixels. The pixel mask is the size of the output image but there is one extra dimension with length equal to the number of input images. Each element of the highest dimension is a mask corresponding to an input image with values of 1 for rejected or excluded pixels and values of 0 for pixels which were used. The order of the masks is the order of the input images and image header keywords, indexed by the pixel coordinate of the highest dimension identify the input images. Note that the pixel positions are in the output pixel coordinate system.

- nrejmasks = "" (optional)
- Optional output pixel mask giving the number of input pixels rejected or excluded from the input images.

- expmasks = "" (optional)
- Optional output exposure mask giving the sum of the exposure values of the input images with non-zero weights that contributed to that pixel. Since masks are integer, the exposure values may be scaled to preserve dynamic range and fractional significance. The scaling values are given in the header under the keywords MASKSCAL and MASKZERO. Exposure values are computed from the mask values by scale * value + zero where scale is the value of the MASKSCAL keyword and zero is the value of the MASKZERO keyword.

- sigma = "" (optional)
- Optional output sigma image. The sigma is the standard deviation, corrected for a finite population, of the input pixel values (excluding rejected pixels) about the output combined pixel values.

- logfile = "STDOUT" (optional)
- Optional output log file. If no file is specified then no log information is produced. The special filename "STDOUT" prints log information to the terminal.

- interptype = "spline3"
- Image interpolation type for any resampling prior to combining. The allowed types are "nearest" (nearest neighbor), "linear" (bilinear), "poly3" (bicubic polynomial), "poly5" (biquintic polynomial), and "spline3" (bicubic polynomial).

- x= INDEF, y1 = INDEF
- User coordinates of the first output column and line. If INDEF then it is based on the smallest value over all the images.

- x= INDEF, y2 = INDEF
- User coordinates of the last output column and line. If INDEF then it is based on the largest value over all the images.

- dx = INDEF, dy = INDEF
- User coordinate pixel interval of the output. If INDEF then the it is based on smallest interval (i.e. highest dispersion) over all the images.

- nx = INDEF, ny = INDEF
- Number of output pixels. If INDEF then it is based on the values of the other coordinate parameters.

- combine = "average" (average|median|sum)
- Type of combining operation performed on the final set of pixels (after offsetting, masking, thresholding, and rejection). The choices are "average", "median", or "sum". The median uses the average of the two central values when the number of pixels is even. For the average and sum, the pixel values are multiplied by the weights (1 if no weighting is used) and summed. The average is computed by dividing by the sum of the weights. If the sum of the weights is zero then the unweighted average is used.

- reject = "none" (none|minmax|ccdclip|crreject|sigclip|avsigclip|pclip)
- Type of rejection operation performed on the pixels remaining after offsetting,
masking and thresholding. The algorithms are described in the
DESCRIPTION section. The rejection choices are:
none - No rejection minmax - Reject the nlow and nhigh pixels ccdclip - Reject pixels using CCD noise parameters crreject - Reject only positive pixels using CCD noise parameters sigclip - Reject pixels using a sigma clipping algorithm avsigclip - Reject pixels using an averaged sigma clipping algorithm pclip - Reject pixels using sigma based on percentiles

- outtype = "real" (none|short|ushort|integer|long|real|double)
- Output image pixel datatype. The pixel datatypes are "double", "real", "long", "integer", unsigned short "ushort", and "short" with highest precedence first. If "none" is specified then the highest precedence datatype of the input images is used. When there is a mixture of short and unsigned short images the highest precedence become integer. The datatypes may be abbreviated to a single character.

- outlimits = ""
- Output region limits in pixels specified as pairs of whitespace separated values. The first two numbers are the limits along the first output image dimension, the next two numbers are the limits along the second dimension, and so on. If the higher dimension limits are not specified they default to the full range. Therefore, if no limits are specified then the full output is created. Note that the output size is computed from all the input images including offsets if specified and the coordinates are relative to that size.

- masktype = "none" (none|goodvalue)
- Type of pixel masking to use. If "none" then no pixel masking is done even if an image has an associated pixel mask. Otherwise the value "goodvalue" will use any mask specified for the image under the BPM keyword. The values of the mask will be interpreted as zero for good pixels and non-zero for bad pixels. The mask pixels are assumed to be registered with the image pixels.

- blank = 0.
- Output value to be used when there are no pixels.

- scale = "none" (none|mode|median|mean|exposure|@<file>|!<keyword>)
- Multiplicative image scaling to be applied. The choices are none, multiply by the reciprocal of the mode, median, or mean of the specified statistics section, multiply by the reciprocal of the exposure time in the image header, multiply by the values in a specified file, or multiply by a specified image header keyword. When specified in a file the scales must be one per line in the order of the input images.

- zero = "none" (none|mode|median|mean|@<file>|!<keyword>)
- Additive zero level image shifts to be applied. The choices are none, add the negative of the mode, median, or mean of the specified statistics section, add the values given in a file, or add the values given by an image header keyword. When specified in a file the zero values must be one per line in the order of the input images. File or keyword zero offset values do not allow a correction to the weights.

- weight = "none" (none|mode|median|mean|exposure|@<file>|!<keyword>)
- Weights to be applied during the final averaging. The choices are none, the mode, median, or mean of the specified statistics section, the exposure time, values given in a file, or values given by an image header keyword. When specified in a file the weights must be one per line in the order of the input images and the only adjustment made by the task is for the number of images previously combined. In this case the weights should be those appropriate for the scaled images which would normally be the inverse of the variance in the scaled image.

- statsec = ""
- Section of images to use in computing image statistics for scaling and weighting. If no section is given then the entire region of the input is sampled (for efficiency the images are sampled if they are big enough). When the images are offset relative to each other one can precede the image section with one of the modifiers "input", "output", "overlap". The first interprets the section relative to the input image (which is equivalent to not specifying a modifier), the second interprets the section relative to the output image, and the last selects the common overlap and any following section is ignored.

- expname = ""
- Image header keyword to be used with the exposure scaling and weighting options. Also if an exposure keyword is specified that keyword will be added to the output image using a weighted average of the input exposure values.

Algorithm Parameters

- lthreshold = INDEF, hthreshold = INDEF
- Low and high thresholds to be applied to the input pixels. This is done before any scaling, rejection, and combining. If INDEF the thresholds are not used.

- nlow = 1, nhigh = (minmax)
- The number of low and high pixels to be rejected by the "minmax" algorithm. These numbers are converted to fractions of the total number of input images so that if no rejections have taken place the specified number of pixels are rejected while if pixels have been rejected by masking, thresholding, or nonoverlap, then the fraction of the remaining pixels, truncated to an integer, is used.

- nkeep = 1
- The minimum number of pixels to retain or the maximum number to reject when using the clipping algorithms (ccdclip, crreject, sigclip, avsigclip, or pclip). When given as a positive value this is the minimum number to keep. When given as a negative value the absolute value is the maximum number to reject. The latter is in addition to pixels missing due to non-overlapping offsets, bad pixel masks, or thresholds.

- mclip = yes (ccdclip, crreject, sigclip, avsigcliip)
- Use the median as the estimate for the true intensity rather than the average with high and low values excluded in the "ccdclip", "crreject", "sigclip", and "avsigclip" algorithms? The median is a better estimator in the presence of data which one wants to reject than the average. However, computing the median is slower than the average.

- lsigma = 3., hsigma = 3. (ccdclip, crreject, sigclip, avsigclip, pclip)
- Low and high sigma clipping factors for the "ccdclip", "crreject", "sigclip", "avsigclip", and "pclip" algorithms. They multiply a "sigma" factor produced by the algorithm to select a point below and above the average or median value for rejecting pixels. The lower sigma is ignored for the "crreject" algorithm.

- rdnoise = "0.", gain = "1.", snoise = "0." (ccdclip, crreject)
- CCD readout noise in electrons, gain in electrons/DN, and sensitivity noise
as a fraction. These parameters are used with the "ccdclip" and "crreject"
algorithms. The values may be either numeric or an image header keyword
which contains the value. The noise model for a pixel is:
variance in DN = (rdnoise/gain)^2 + DN/gain + (snoise*DN)^2 variance in e- = (rdnoise)^2 + (gain*DN) + (snoise*(gain*DN))^2 = rdnoise^2 + Ne + (snoise * Ne)^2

where DN is the data number and Ne is the number of electrons. Sensitivity noise typically comes from noise introduced during flat fielding.

- sigscale = 0.(ccdclip, crreject, sigclip, avsigclip)
- This parameter determines when poisson corrections are made to the computation of a sigma for images with different scale factors. If all relative scales are within this value of unity and all relative zero level offsets are within this fraction of the mean then no correction is made. The idea is that if the images are all similarly though not identically scaled, the extra computations involved in making poisson corrections for variations in the sigmas can be skipped. A value of zero will apply the corrections except in the case of equal images and a large value can be used if the sigmas of pixels in the images are independent of scale and zero level.

- pclip = -0.(pclip)
- Percentile clipping algorithm parameter. If greater than one in absolute value then it specifies a number of pixels above or below the median to use for computing the clipping sigma. If less than one in absolute value then it specifies the fraction of the pixels above or below the median to use. A positive value selects a point above the median and a negative value selects a point below the median. The default of -0.5 selects approximately the quartile point.

- grow = 0.
- Radius in pixels for additional pixel to be rejected in an image with a rejected pixel from one of the rejection algorithms. This applies only to pixels rejected by one of the rejection algorithms and not the masked or threshold rejected pixels.

## DESCRIPTION

**LSCOMBINE**
combines two-dimensional longslit images by first
resampling them to a common world coordinate system, if not already on
the same system, and then combining the matching pixels. The final world
coordinate system is specified by parameters or by looking at the maximum
ranges and minimum intervals over the input data.

Algorithmically it is a combination of the tasks **TRANSFORM**
(using
the WCS) and **IMCOMBINE**
. When excuting it will generate temporary
images ("lsc*") and masks ("mlsc*") if the images are not already on a
common world coordinate system. The user only need be aware of this
in case of an unexpected abort leaving these files behind.

Rather than repeat the details the user should consult the descriptions
for **TRANSFORM**
and **IMCOMBINE**
ignoring parameters which are
not part of this task.

## EXAMPLES

cl> lscombine obj* lscomb

## NOTES

- LSCOMBINE: V2.12.3
- This is a new task in this relese.

## SEE ALSO

transform, imcombine. odcombine