mkechelle -- Make artificial echelle spectra
mkechelle images [clobber]
- List of echelle spectra to create or modify.
- clobber (query)
- If an existing image is specified the clobber query parameter is used. Normally the parameter is not specified on the command line so that a query will be made for each image which exists. Putting a value on the command line permanently overrides the query. This should be done if the task is run in the background.
- ncols = 512, nlines = 512, norders = 23
- For two dimensional spectra these parameters define the number of columns
and lines in the final image and the maximum number of orders (there may be
orders falling outside the image). The dispersion is along the columns
which is the second or line axis (dispersion axis is 2) so the number of
columns is the number of pixels across the dispersion and the number of
lines is the number of pixels along the dispersion per order.
The extracted format turns the number of lines into the number columns and the number of orders is the number of lines; i.e the image has the specified number of extracted orders, one per image line, with the number of pixels along the dispersion specified by the nlines parameter. This is equivalent to what the apextract package would produces for an extracted echelle format with an original dispersion axis of 2. There is no check in this case for orders which might fall outside the two dimensional format; i.e. exactly the number of orders are created.
- title = "Artificial Echelle Spectrum"
- Image title to be given to the spectra. Maximum of 79 characters.
- header = "artdata$stdheader.dat"
- Image or header keyword data file. If an image is given then the image header is copied. If a file is given then the FITS format cards are copied. The data file consists of lines in FITS format with leading whitespace ignored. A FITS card must begin with an uppercase/numeric keyword. Lines not beginning with a FITS keyword such as comments or lower case are ignored. The user keyword output of imheader is an acceptible data file. See mkheader for further information.
- list = no
- List the grating/instrument parameters?
- make = yes
- Make the artificial spectra? This is set to no if only the grating parameter listing is desired.
- comments = yes
- Include comments recording task parameters in the image header?
- xc = INDEF, yc = INDEF
- The column and line position of the blaze peak in the reference order (see order parameter. If INDEF then the middle of the dimension is used. This allows setting the image center relative to the center of the echelle pattern. As with the number of lines and columns the interpretation of these numbers relative to the image created depends on whether the format is extracted or not.
- pixsize = 0.027
- Pixel size in millimeters. This is used to convert the focal length and dispersion to pixels. If INDEF then these parameters are assumed to be in pixels.
- profile = "gaussian" (extracted|gaussian|slit)
- The order profile across the dispersion. If the value is "extracted" then an extracted echelle format spectrum is produced. Otherwise a two dimensional format with a gaussian or slit profile is produced. See mk2dspec for a discussion of the profile functions.
- width = 5.
- If two dimensional echelle images are selected this parameter specifies the order profile full width at half maximum in pixels. See mk2dspec for a fuller discussion.
- scattered = 0.
- Scattered light peak flux per pixel. A simple scattered light component may be included in the two dimensional format. The scattered light has the blaze function shape of the central order along the dispersion and the crossdisperser blaze function shape across the dispersion with the peak value given by this parameter. A value of zero indicates no scattered light component.
Any of the following parameters may be specified as INDEF. The missing values are resolved using the grating equations described in the DESCRIPTION section. If it is not possible to resolve all the grating parameters but the order, wavelength, and dispersion are specified then a linear dispersion function is used. Also in this case the extracted format will include dispersion information.
- f = 590., cf = 590.
- Echelle and crossdisperser focal lengths in millimeters (if pixsize is given) or pixels. Technically it is defined by the equation x = f * tan (theta) where x is distance from the optical axis on the detector and theta is the diffraction angle; i.e. it converts angular measures to millimeters or pixels on the detector. If the focal length is specified as INDEF it may be computed from the dispersion, which is required in this case, and the other parameters.
- gmm = 31.6, cgmm = 226.
- Echelle and crossdisperser grating grooves per millimeter. If specified as INDEF it may be computed from the order, which is required in this case, and the other parameters.
- blaze = 63., cblaze = 4.53
- Echelle and crossdisperser blaze angles in degrees. It is always specified or printed as a positive angle relative to the grating normal. If specified as INDEF it is computed from the other parameters.
- theta = 69., ctheta = -11.97
- Echelle and crossdisperser angles of incidence in degrees. The angle of incidence must be in the plane perpendicular to face of the grating. The angle of incidence may be specified relative to the grating normal or the blaze angle though it is always printed relative to the grating normal. To specify it relative to the blaze angle add 360 degrees; for example to have an angle of 15 degrees less than the blaze angle specify 360 - 15 = 345. If the angle of incidence is specified as INDEF it is computed from the other parameters.
- order = 112
- The central or reference echelle order for which the wavelength and dispersion are specified. If specified as INDEF it will be computed from the grooves per mm, which is required in this case, and the other parameters. In combination with the number of orders this defines the first and last orders. The highest order is the central order plus the integer part of one half the number of orders. However, the lowest order is constraned to be at least 1. The reference order is also used in the definitions of xc and yc .
- corder = 1
- The crossdisperser order for which the crossdisperser blaze wavelength and
dispersion are specified. If specified as INDEF it will be computed from
the grooves per mm, which is required in this case, and the other
If the order is zero then the other grating parameters are ignored and a prism-like dispersion is used with the property that the order spacing is constant. Specifically the dispersion varies as the inverse of the wavelength with the cwavelength and cdispersion defining the function.
- wavelength = 5007.cwavelength = 6700.
- Echelle and crossdisperser blaze wavelengths in Angstroms at the reference orders. If specified as INDEF it will be computed from the other parameters.
- dispersion = 2.cdispersion = 70.
- Echelle and crossdisperser blaze dispersions in Angstroms per millimeter (if pixsize is specified) or pixels. If specified as INDEF it will be computed from the focal length, which is required in this case, and the other parameters.
- rv = 0.
- Radial velocity (km/s) or redshift, as selected by the parameter z , applied to line positions and continuum. Velocities are converted to redshift using the relativistic relation 1+z = sqrt ((1+rv/c)/(1-rv/c)). Note the shift is not a shift in the dispersion parameters but in the underlying artificial spectrum.
- z = no
- Is the velocity parameter a radial velocity or a redshift?
- continuum = 1000.
- Continuum at the echelle blaze peak in the reference order.
- temperature = 5700.
- Blackbody continuum temperture in Kelvin. A value of 0 is used if no blackbody continuum is desired. The intensity level is set by scaling to the continuum level at blaze peak reference point.
- lines = ""
- List of spectral line files. Spectral line files contain lines of rest wavelength, peak, and widths (see the the DESCRIPTION section). The latter two parameters may be missing in which case they default to the task peak and sigma parameters. If no file or a new (nonexistent) file is specified then a number of random lines given by the parameter nlines is generated. If a new file name is specified then the lines generated are recorded in the file. If the list of spectral line files is shorter than the list of input spectra, the last spectral line list file is reused.
- nlines = 0
- If no spectral line file or a new file is specified then the task will generate this number of random spectral lines. The rest wavelengths are uniformly random within the limits of the spectrum, the peaks are uniformly random between zero and the value of the peak parameter and the width is fixed at the value of the sigma parameter. If a redshift is applied the rest wavelengths are shifted and repeated periodically.
- peak = -0.5
- The maximum spectral line peak value when generating random lines or when the peak is missing fromthe spectral line file. This value is relative to the continuum unless the continuum is zero. Negative values are absorption lines and positive values are emission lines.
- sigma = 1.
- The default line width as a gaussian sigma in Angstroms when generating random lines or when the width is missing from the spectral line file.
- seed = 1
- Random number seed.
- nxsub = 10
- Number of pixel subsamples used in computing the gaussian spectral line profiles.
- dynrange = 100000.
- The gaussian line profiles extend to infinity so a dynamic range, the ratio of the peak intensity to the cutoff intensity, is imposed to cutoff the profiles.
This task creates or adds to artificial extracted (one dimensional "echelle" format) or two dimensional echelle spectra. The input spectrum (before modification by the spectrograph model) may be a combination of doppler shifted blackbody or constant continuum and emission and absorption gaussian profile spectral lines. The lines may have randomly selected parameters or be taken from an input file. Note that the parameters and method is similar to the task mk1dspec except that the input line list cannot specify a profile type and only Gaussian profiles are currently allowed. The input spectrum is then separated out into echelle orders and either recorded as extracted one dimensional orders or convolved with a spatial profile and crossdispersed into a two dimensional image. The properties of the echelle grating, crossdisperser, and instrumental configuration are modeled described later.
If an existing image is specified the clobber parameter is used to determine whether to add the generated artificial echelle spectrum to the image. Generally the clobber parameter is not specified on the command line to cause a query with the image name to be made for each image which already exists. However, it is possible to put the clobber parameter on the command line to eliminate the query. This is appropriate for running the task in the background.
There is no checking for consistency with an existing image; i.e. that it is an echelle image, whether it is an extracted format or a two dimensional spectrum, and what it's wavelength and order coverage is. The only thing that happens is that the ncols , nlines , and norders parameters are replaced by the appropriate dimensions of the image with the choice between nlines and norders made by the profile parameter (as discussed below) and not by the format of the image.
The created spectra are two dimensional, real datatype, images. A title may be given and a set of header keywords be added by specifying an image or data file with the header parameter (see also mkheader ). If a data file is specified lines beginning with FITS keywords are entered in the image header. Leading whitespace is ignored and any lines beginning with words having lowercase and nonvalid FITS keyword characters are ignored. In addition to this optional header, various parameters which occur during reduction of real echelle spectra, such a wavelength coordinates for extracted and dispersion corrected spectra, are added. Finally, comments may be added to the image header recording the task parameters and any information from the line file which are not line definitions.
The creation of an artificial echelle spectra has three stages. First a true spectrum is generated; i.e. the spectrum which arrives at the spectrograph. The spectrum is then separated into orders and the dispersion and blaze functions of the echelle and crossdisperser gratings (or crossdisperser prism) are applied. Finally, if a two dimensional format is desired it is convolved by an spatial profile (either a gaussian or a broader slit-like profile) and the orders are placed as required by the crossdispersion relation.
Generation of the model spectrum has three parts; defining a continuum, adding emission and absorption lines, and applying a doppler shift. The continuum has two parameters; an intensity scale set by the continuum parameter and a shape set by the temperature parameter. The intensity scale is set by defining the total, final, extracted intensity in a pixel at the blaze peak (rest) wavelength in the reference order; i.e. at the wavelength set by the wavelength parameter. Note this means that the efficiency of the gratings at that wavelength is included. The shape of the continuum may be either a blackbody if a positive temperture is specified or constant.
Spectral lines are modeled by gaussian profiles of specified wavelength, peak, and sigma. The lines are defined in a spectral line file or generated randomly. A spectral line file consists of text lines giving rest wavelength, peak, and sigma. The sigma or the sigma and peak may be absent in which case the parameters sigma and peak will be used. If peak values are missing random values between zero and the peak value are generated. Thus, a simple list of wavelengths or a list of wavelengths and peaks may be used.
If no spectral line file is specified or a new (nonexistent) file is named then the number of random lines given by the parameter nlines is generated. The rest wavelengths are uniformly random within the wavelength range of the spectrum and extend periodically outside this range in the case of an applied velocity shift, the peaks are uniformly random between zero and the peak parameter, and the widths are given by the sigma parameter. If a new file is named then the parameters of the generated lines will be output.
The peak values are taken relative to a positive continuum. In other words the generated line profile is multiplied by the continuum (with a minimum of zero for fully saturated absorption lines). If the continuum is less than or equal to zero, as in the case of an artificial arc spectrum or pure emission line spectrum, then the peak values are interpreted as absolute intensities. Positive peak values produce emission lines and negative values produce absorption lines. Odd results will occur if the continuum has both positive and zero or negative values.
The width values are gaussian sigmas given in Angstroms.
The underlying rest spectrum may be shifted. This is used primarily for testing radial velocity measuring algorithms and is not intended as a complete model of redshift effects. The observed wavelength coverage as defined by the grating parameters and number of orders is not changed by redshifting. Input line wavelengths are specified at rest and then shifted into or out of the final spectrum. To be realistic the line list should include wavelengths over a great enough range to cover all desired redshifts. The peaks and sigma are also appropriately modified by a redshift. As an example, if the redshift is 1 the lines will appear broader by a factor of 2 and the peaks will be down by a factor of 2 in order to maintain the same flux.
The random line generation is complicated because one wants to have the same set of lines (for a given seed) observed at different redshifts. What is done is that the specified number of random lines is generated within the observed wavelength interval taken at rest. This set is then repeated periodical over all wavelengths. A redshift will then shift these rest lines in to or out of the observed spectrum. If the lines are output to a line file, they are given at rest. Note that this periodicity may be important in interpreting cross-correlation redshift tests for large shifts between template and object spectra.
The definitions of the continuum are also affected by a redshift. The reference point for the continuum level and blackbody shape is the starting wavelength taken at rest. Shifts will then modify the continuum level at the reference pixel appropriately. In particular a large redshift will shift the blackbody in such a way that the flux is still given by the continuum parameter at the reference wavelength at rest.
Once the input spectrum is defined it is modified by the effects of an echelle grating and crossdispersion. This includes the dispersion relation between pixel and wavelength, the blaze response function of the gratings, and separation into orders.
The primary reference for the model of the echelle grating (a crossdisperser grating also obeys this model) used in this task is "Echelle efficiencies: theory and experiment" by Schroeder and Hilliard in Applied Optics, Vol. 19, No. 16, 1980, p. 2833. (The nomenclature below is similar to that paper except we use theta for alpha, their theta is theta - blaze, the reciprocal of the groove spacing which is the grooves per millimeter, and the dispersion per linear distance at the detector rather than per radian). This task only treats the case where the incident beam is in the plane perpendicular to the grating face (gamma=0). In this case the basic equation is
(1) m * lambda = (sin(theta) + sin(beta)) / g
where m is the order, lambda the wavelength, g the grooves per wavelength unit, theta the angle of incidence to the grating normal, and beta the angle of diffraction to the normal. The diffraction angle relative to that of the blaze maximum, psi, is given by
(2) beta = psi + 2 * blaze - theta
where blaze is the blaze angle. The diffraction angle psi is related to position on the detector, again measured from the blaze peak, by
(3) x = f / pixsize * tan(psi)
where f is the effective focal length (as defined by this equation) and pixsize is the pixel size in millimeters that converts the detector positions to pixels. If a pixel size is not specified then f will be taken as being in pixels.
The second basic equation is the diffraction pattern or blaze response given by
(5) I = I0 * (sin(delta) / delta) ** 2 (6) delta = 2 * pi / lambda * (cos(theta) / g) / cos(epsilon) * sin(psi/2) * cos(epsilon-psi/2) (7) epsilon = theta - blaze
where epsilon is the angle between the blaze angle and the angle of incidence (the theta of Shroeder and Hilliard). When theta = blaze, (6) simplifies to
(6a) delta = pi / lambda * (cos (blaze) / g) * sin (psi)
As discussed by Schroeder and Hilliard, the relative intensity at the blaze peak, I0, must be reduced by the fraction of light at the same wavelength as the blaze peak which is diffracted into other orders. Furthermore at some differaction angles the light is reflected off the second face of the grating giving a different effective diffraction angle to be used in (6). This computation is done by the task giving a variation in relative blaze response with order and reproducing the calculations of Schroeder and Hilliard. The absolute normalization, including the crossdisperser blaze function if any, is such that the response at the blaze peak of the reference order is unity. This insures that specified continuum level at the reference wavelength is produced.
At the blaze maximum psi = x = 0 and the wavelength and dispersion per millimeter on the detector are given by (1) and the derivative of (1) with respect to x:
(8) wavelength = 1E7*(sin(theta)+sin(2*blaze-theta))/(gmm*order) (9) dispersion = 1E7*cos(2*blaze-theta)/(gmm*order*f/pixsize)
The variable names are the same as the parameters in this task. In particular, gmm is the echelle grooves per millimeter with the factors of 1E7 (10 to the seventh power) to convert to Angstroms, the factor of f / pixsize to convert the dispersion to per pixel, and order is the reference order for the wavelength and dispersion.
The mkechelle task provides different ways to define the parameters. If there is insufficient information to determine all the grating parameters but the wavelength, dispersion, order are specified then a simplified grating equation is used which is linear with pixel position. The approximation is that tan(psi) = sin(psi) = psi so that
(9) lambda = (order * wavelength + dispersion * x) / m = (a + b * x) / m (10) delta = pi * order * dispersion / lambda * x = c / lambda * x
Also in this case the extracted format (described later) includes wavelength information in the header so that the spectra appear as fully dispersion corrected.
If there are at least five of the seven grating parameters specified then equations (8) and (9) are used to determine unspecified parameters or to override parameters if the equations are overspecified. For example, suppose the grooves per millimeter is known but not the blaze angle or focal length. Then the wavelength and dispersion at the reference order are used to compute these quantities.
The full set of grating parameters derived and used to create the spectra are documented in the image header if the comments parameter is specified. Also the list parameter may be set to print the grating parameters and the make parameter may be set to no to check the grating parameters without making the spectra.
The crossdisperser grating parameters are treated exactly as above except, since only one order is used, the relative blaze efficiency is not computed.
There is a variant on the crossdispersion to allow a prism-like separation of the echelle orders. If the crossdispersion grating order, corder is set to zero then the other grating parameters are ignored and a prism-like dispersion is used with the property that the order spacing is constant. Specifically the dispersion varies as the inverse of the wavelength with the cwavelength and cdispersion defining the function. There is no crossdisperser blaze function in this case either; i.e. the relative intensities between orders is solely due to the echelle grating blaze response.
There is an interesting effect which follows from the above equations but which is not obvious at first glance. When the full grating equation is used the dispersion varies with wavelength. This means the size of a pixel in wavelength varies and so the flux in a pixel changes. The effect is such that the order intensity maximum shifts to the blue from the blaze peak because the pixel width in Angstroms increases to the blue faster, for a while, than the blaze response decreases.
Once the spectrum has been separated into orders, modified by the grating blaze functions, and sampled into pixels in the dispersion direction it may be output as an extracted "echelle" format spectrum. This occurs when the spatial profile is specified as "extracted". The keywords added by the apextract package are included in the image header. If the dispersion model is linear the keywords are the same as those produced by the dispersion correction task ecdispcor .
If the spatial profile is specified as "gaussian" or "slit" then the orders are convolved by the profile function and the crossdispersion relation is used to determine where the order falls at each wavelength. The spatial profiles are defined by the formulas:
gaussian: I(x) = exp (-ln(2) * (2*(x-xc(w))/width)**2) slit: I(x) = exp (-ln(2) * (2*(x-xc(w))/width)**10)
where x is the spatial coordinate, xc(w) is the order center at wavelength w, and width is the full width at half maximum specified by the parameter of that name. The "gaussian" profile is the usual gaussian specified in terms of a FWHM. The "slit" profile is one which is relatively flat and then rapidly drops to zero. The profile is normalized to unit integral so that the total flux across the profile is given by the scaled 1D spectrum flux. The profile is fully sampled and then binned to the pixel size to correctly include sampling effects as a function of where in a pixel the order center falls.
Note that in this model the orders are always tilted with respect to the columns and constant wavelength is exactly aligned with the image lines.
1. Create an absorption spectrum with blackbody continuum and scattered light using the default grating parameters then add noise.
cl> mkechelle ex1 nrand=100 scat=100. cl> mknoise ex1 gain=2 rdnoise=5 poisson+
2. Create an arc spectrum using the line list noao$lib/onedstds/thorium.dat.
cl> mkechelle ex2 cont=10 temp=0 \ lines=noao$lib/onedstds/thorium.dat peak=1000 sigma=.05
Note that the line intensities are random and not realistic. The peak intensities range from 0 to 1000 times the continuum or 10000.
3. Create an extracted version of example1.
cl> mkechelle ex1.ec prof=extracted nrand=100 scat=100. cl> mknoise ex1.ec gain=2 rdnoise=5 poisson+
Note that the noise is different and greater than would be the case with extracting the orders of example 1 because the noise is not summed over the order profile but is added after the fact.
4. Create an extracted and dispersion corrected version of example1.
cl> mkechelle ex1.ec prof=extracted nrand=100 scat=100. \ gmm=INDEF blaze=INDEF theta=INDEF Echelle grating: Using linear dispersion Warning: Insufficient information to to resolve grating parameters cl> mknoise ex1.ec gain=2 rdnoise=5 poisson+
The warning is expected. By not specifying all the parameters needed to fully model an echelle grating the default action is to use a linear dispersion in each order and to set the image header dispersion information. When a complete grating model is specified, as in example 3, the extracted spectrum is not given dispersion information so that the nonlinear behavior of the dispersion can be applied by ecidentify and dispcor . As with example 3, the noise is different since it is added after extraction and dispersion correction.
- MKECHELLE V2.10.3
- The task was updated to produce the current coordinate system format.