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pedsky -- subtract sky and pedestal signal from a NICMOS image
pedsky input output
The pedsky task measures and removes an estimate of the sky background and quadrant-dependent residual bias (or "pedestal") in a NICMOS image. The input image to the task must be at least partially calibrated, including zero-read subtraction, dark subtraction, and linearization. The input image may also be flatfielded, but this is not required.
Pedsky runs on a single science image (i.e. not on all the separate readouts of a NICMOS MULTIACCUM file). It operates only on the [SCI,1] extension, which is appropriate when the task is run on, e.g., the _cal type images that are the final product of the "calnica" calibration pipeline. The task's internal algorithms are designed to operate on an unflatfielded image, but a fully-calibrated (including flatfielding) image may be used as input, as the task will check the status of the flatfielding (via the value of the FLATDONE keyword in the input image header) and will temporarily remove and, at the end of processing, reapply the flatfield if necessary.
The task works by assuming that the signal in the image that is near the background level is composed of the actual sky signal, modulated by the spatially-varying quantum efficiency of the detector, plus a DC bias signal that is constant over an image quadrant. The task can estimate the sky and bias levels by any of several available methods. The user can select the method via the "salgorithm" parameter. In all methods, a single sky value is applied to the entire image, while indepedent bias values are determined for each image quadrant.
The fastest method (salgorithm=quick) performs a direct least-squares solution to the equation "signal = flat*sky + bias", where "signal" is the value of each pixel in the input image, "flat" is the corresponding flatfield value for each pixel, and "sky" and "bias" are the sky background and residual bias signals. Only those pixels near the background level of the image are used in the fitting process. The range of pixel values to be used can be set via the smin and smax parameters. If set to INDEF, the task will use a range of values within a few sigma of the image median.
The second method (salgorithm=iter) iteratively subtracts trial sky and bias values from the image, seeking the optimal combination that produces an image with the minimum rms deviation in pixel values. When using this method, the smin and smax task parameters may be used to set the range of trial sky values. If left set to INDEF, the task will again compute default values based on statistics of the input image. For each iteration of trial sky values, the task performs the following steps:
1. Scale the reciprocal flatfield image by the test sky value 2. Subtract the scaled flatfield image from the input image 3. Calculate the clipped median of each quadrant of the resulting image (this is assumed to be the pedestal level) 4. Subtract the pedestal level from each image quadrant 5. Optionally perform a ring median filtering of the resulting image to remove pixel-to-pixel noise and attempt to filter out objects 6. Calculate the rms residuals of the remaining image fluctuationsThe search for the optimal sky value uses the Brent minimization algorithm to hunt down the minimum of the function rms vs. sky scaling value. When the rms is minimized, the final sky scaling and quadrant pedestal values are subtracted from the image to produce a sky- and bias-subtracted output image.
A third alternative (salgorithm=constant) allows the user to supply a predetermined sky value (via the skyvalue parameter) to be subtracted. Following the sky subtraction, the remaining quadrant-dependent pedestal is estimated and subtracted.
Finally, if salgorithm=none, no sky signal is determined or subtracted. In this case only the bias is estimated and removed. This is accomplished by simply computing and subtracting the clipped median of each quadrant (assumed to be equivalent to the bias signal).
The sky and pedestal values determined by all methods are stored in the output image header in the keywords SKYVAL and PEDQUAD1 through PEDQUAD4.
Before performing any sky or pedestal estimates, the task searches for and flags pixels in the input image suspected of containing signal from a source. This is accomplished by making a rough estimate of the background level in the image and then identifying pixels with signal greater than a few sigma above the background as potentially containing a source. Internally, these pixels are flagged in the DQ image extension that is carried through the remaining calculations, and is used to exclude the flagged pixels from all computations. If the "keepflags" parameter is yes, the task will save these source flags in the DQ image extension of the output image. The process of flagging and excluding source-contaminated pixels usually obviates the need for the optional ring median filtering that is available for the salgorithm=iter mode.
In principle, any image may be used to represent the spatial structure of the sky, i.e. one does not need to use a standard NICMOS flatfield reference file. In particular, for some NICMOS images the two-dimensional structure of the sky may not exactly resemble that of the flatfield. A good example is data taken at wavelengths > 1.8 microns, where thermal background generated within the telescope may illuminate the detector differently than does the zodical sky. In cases like this, the user may want to provide his or her own "sky" image (e.g. constructed from the median of many dithered science or background exposures) instead of using the standard flatfield image. This can sometimes improve the quality of the sky + pedestal fitting even for data taken at shorter wavelengths. Note, however, that because pedsky assumes (by default) that the "flatfield" image is really a standard pipeline inverse flat image, then if a different image is supplied it should actually be the reciprocal of the expected sky image. Optimally it should also be normalized to have approximately unit mean.
Note that the methods used by pedsky will only work for images which are relatively "blank", i.e. free of extended, bright objects that dominate the field of view. The "quick" and "iter" procedures, for example, must have a sufficiently large number of pixels containing only sky signal in order to arrive at a good solution. Also, since the bias estimate for all methods other than "quick" is arrived at by simply computing the clipped median of each image quadrant, these estimates will be biased if a majority of pixels contain source signal. The source-flagging and ring median filtering procedures can not be relied upon in these cases to remove the effects of the source(s). The source-flagging procedure will not work well since it will be difficult accurately estimate the image background. Similarly, the ring median filtering is only helpful for removing objects with scale sizes smaller than the inner radius of the filter. The ring median feature considerably slows the operation of the task, and users should experiment to see if its use significantly improves the quality of the pedestal subtraction.
A task that is effective at removing pedestal from crowded images is pedsub.
- input [file]
- Input image name(s). This will normally be a single IMSET file (_cal type) that has been processed through "calnica". The full file name must be given.
- output [file]
- Output image name(s). Must be a full file name specification and the numbers of input and output images must be equal.
- (salgorithm = "quick") [string, values: quick|iter|constant|none]
- Sky fitting algorithm. The "quick" mode performs a least-squares linear fit to the data to directly solve for sky and pedestal values. The "iter" mode performs an iterative search for the combination of sky and pedestal values that minimize the resulting image residuals. In the "constant" mode the task will subtract a user-supplied sky value, given by the task parameter "skyvalue". If set to "none", no sky determination or subtraction is performed.
- (skyvalue = 0.) [real]
- User-supplied constant sky value. Only used if salgorithm = "constant".
- (smin = INDEF) [real]
- Minimum scaling factor for automatic sky determination. Only used if salgorithm = "quick" or "iter". If INDEF, the task will set smin to the minimum of zero or the image median - 2*stddev.
- (smax = INDEF) [real]
- Maximum scaling factor for automatic sky determination. Only used if salgorithm = "quick" or "iter". If INDEF, the task will set smax to the image mean + stddev.
- (maxiter = 12) [integer]
- Maximum number of iterations for iterative sky determination. Only used if salgorithm = "iter".
- (tol = 0.002) [real]
- Fractional tolerance criterion for convergence test in iterative sky determination. Only used if salgorithm = "iter".
- (keepflags = yes) [boolean]
- Keep the source flags found by the task in the output image? If set to "yes", the task will add the source flags (DQ value = 1024) that it sets during operation to the DQ image extension of the output image. If set to "no", the output image DQ extension is unchanged.
- (flatfield = "") [file]
- Flatfield file to use for subtracting sky or pedestal signals. If left blank, the task will read the name of the flatfield image from the FLATFILE keyword in the input image header. Any "inverse sky" image may be supplied here; see comments above.
- (statregions = "") [pset]
- Pset containing image section specifications for computing statistics. The "quad1" through "quad4" parameters specify the boundaries to use for each quadrant when computing the pedestal levels. The "statsec" parameter specifies the image section to use when computing the whole-image residuals after sky and pedestal subtraction.
- (dqon = yes) [boolean]
- Turn on pixel masking by data quality bits? If yes, then pixels with DQ bits corresponding to those listed in the dqpar pset (see below) will not be used in any statistical computations.
- (dqpar = "") [pset]
- Data quality bits parameter set. Pixels with DQ bits corresponding to those bits turned on in this pset will be rejected from statistical computations if dqon=yes.
- (rmedian = no) [boolean]
- Do ring median filtering of image before computing residuals and pedestal values?
- (rin = 6.) [real]
- Inner radius, in pixels, for ring median filter.
- (rout = 12.) [real]
- Outer radius, in pixels, for ring median filter.
- (verbose = yes) [boolean]
- Verbose output during task execution?
1. Estimate and subtract sky and pedestal from the calibrated image n3z302g7m_cal.fits, storing the resulting image in the file n3z302g7m_ped.fits. The sky determination is performed using the default "quick" least-squares fitting method and the flatfield image named in the input image header is used:
cl> pedsky n3z302g7m_cal.fits n3z302g7m_ped.fits
2. Correct the same image, filtering sources with the rmedian operation:
cl> pedsky n3z302g7m_cal.fits n3z302g7m_ped.fits rmedian+
3. Correct the image n4ls01i1q_cal.fits using a predetermined sky value of 1.34:
cl> pedsky n4ls01i1q_cal.fits n4ls01i1q_ped.fits salg="constant" \ >>> skyval=1.34
4. Process the images listed in the file "cal.lis", using all default parameter settings. The corresponding list of output file names is contained in the file "ped.lis":
cl> pedsky @cal.lis @ped.lis
- Version 19-May-(STSDAS v2.2)
- CL script version of task replaced with ANSI-C native IRAF task. Changes in functionality include: input image may have flatfield correction already applied (in fact, this is encouraged); routine added to find and flag sources; keepflags parameter added to allow saving of source flags; salgorithm parameter setting "auto" split into two settings "quick" and "iter"; dqon and dqpar parameters added; inter parameter eliminated (interactive graphics not possible from IRAF C interface).
- Version 11-Jun-(STSDAS v2.1)
- First release of original CL script version of task. Input image was required to be in unflatfielded form.
Author: H. Bushouse, STScI