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psfmeasure noao.obsutil


NAME · USAGE · PARAMETERS · CURSOR_COMMANDS · DESCRIPTION · ALGORITHMS
INTERACTIVE_GRAPHICS_MODE · EXAMPLES

NAME

psfmeasure -- Measure PSF widths in stellar images

USAGE

psfmeasure images

PARAMETERS

images
List of images.
coords = "mark1" (center|mark1|markall)
Method by which the coordinates of objects to be measured are specified. If "center" then a single object at the center of each image is measured. If "mark1" then the imagecur parameter, typically the interactive image display cursor, defines the coordinates of one or more objects in the first image ending with a q key value and then the same coordinates are automatically used in subsequent images. If "markall" then the imagecur parameter defines the coordinates for objects in each image ending with a q key value.
wcs = "logical" (logical|physical|world)
Coordinate system for input coordinates. When using image cursor input this will always be "logical". When using cursor input from a file this could be "physical" or "world".
display = yes, frame = 1
Display the image or images as needed? If yes the image display is checked to see if the image is already in one of the display frames. If it is not the display task is called to display the image in the frame specified by the frame parameter. All other display parameters are taken from the current settings of the task. This option requires that the image display be active. A value of no is typically used when an input cursor file is used instead of the image display cursor. An image display need not be active in that case.

level = 0.5
The parameter used to quantify an object image size is the radius from the image center enclosing the fraction of the total flux given by this parameter. If the value is greater than 1 it is treated as a percentage.
size = "FWHM" (Radius|FWHM|GFWHM|MFWHM)
There are four ways the PSF size may be shown in graphs and given in the output. These are:

    Radius - the radius enclosing the specified fraction of the flux
    FWHM   - a direct FWHM from the measured radial profile
    GFWHM  - the FWHM of the best fit Gaussian profile
    MFWHM  - the FWHM of the best fit Moffat profile

The labels in the graphs and output will be the value of this parameter to distinguish the different types of size measurements.

beta = INDEF
For the Moffat profile fit (size = MFWHM) the exponent parameter may be fixed at a specified value or left free to be determined from the fit. The exponent parameter is determined by the fit if beta task parameter is INDEF.
scale = 1.
Pixel scale in user units per pixel. Usually the value is 1 to measure sizes in pixels or the image pixel scale in arc seconds per pixel.
radius = 5., iterations = 3
Measurement radius in pixels and number of iterations on the radius. The enclosed flux profile is measured out to this radius. This radius may be adjusted if the iteration parameter is greater than 1. In that case after each iteration a new radius is computed from the previous direct FWHM estimate. The new radius is three times direct FWHM (six times the half-maximum radius). The purpose of this is so that if the initial PSF size of the image need not be known. However, the radius should then be larger than true image size since the iterations best converge to smaller values.
sbuffer = 5, swidth = 5.
Sky buffer and sky width in pixels. The buffer is added to the specified measurement radius to define the inner radius for a circular sky aperture. The sky width is the width of the circular sky aperture.
saturation=INDEF, ignore_sat=no
Data values (prior to sky subtraction) to be considered saturated within measurement radius. A value of INDEF treats all pixels as unsaturated. If a measurement has saturated pixels there are two actions. If ignore_sat =no then a warning is given but the measurement is saved for use. The object will also be indicated as saturated in the output log. If ignore_sat =yes then a warning is given and the object is discarded as if it was not measured.
xcenter = INDEF, ycenter = INDEF
The optical field center of the image given in image pixel coordinates. These values need not lie in the image. If INDEF the center of the image is used. These values are used to make plots of size verse distance from the field center for studies of radial variations.
logfile = "logfile"
File in which to record the final results. If no log file is desired a null string may be specified.

imagecur = ""
Image cursor input for the "mark1" and "markall" options. If null then the image dispaly cursor is used interactively. If a file name is specified then the coordinates come from this file. The format of the file are lines of x, y, id, and key. Values of x an y alone may be used to select objects and the single character q (or the end of the file) may be used to end the list.
graphcur = ""
Graphics cursor input. If null then the standard graphics cursor is used otherwise a standard cursor format file may be specified.

CURSOR COMMANDS

When selecting objects with the image cursor the following commands are available.

?  Page cursor command summary
g  Measure object and graph the results.
m  Measure object.
q  Quit object marking and go to next image.
   At the end of all images go to analysis of all measurements.

:show  Show current results.

When in the interactive graphics the following cursor commands are available. All plots may not be available depending on the number of stars.

?  Page cursor command summary
a  Spatial plot
d  Delete star nearest to cursor
e  Enclosed flux for all stars
i  Information about star nearest the cursor
m  Size and ellipticity vs relative magnitude
n  Normalize enclosed flux at x cursor position
o  Offset enclosed flux by adjusting background
p  Radial profiles for all stars
q  Quit
r  Redraw
s  Toggle magnitude symbols in spatial plot
t  Size and ellipticity vs radius from field center
u  Undelete all deleted points
x  Delete nearest point or star (selected by query)
z  Zoom to a single measurement
<space> Step through different stars in some plots

:beta <val>     Set the beta parameter for the Moffat profile fit
:level <val>	Level at which the size parameter is evaluated
:overplot <y|n> Overplot the profiles from the narrowest profile?
:radius <val>   Change profile radius
:show <file>	Page all information for the current set of objects
:size <type>	Size type (Radius|FWHM)
:scale <val>	Pixel scale for size values
:xcenter <val>	X field center for radius from field center plots
:ycenter <val>	Y field center for radius from field center plots

DESCRIPTION

This task measures the point-spread function (PSF) width of stars or other unresolved objects in digital images. The width is measured from the enclosed flux verses radius profile. The details of this are described in the ALGORITHMS section. Measurements of multiple stars in multiple images may be made. When there are multiple stars, variations in the PSF with position may be examined. The task has three stages; selecting objects and measuring the PSF width and other parameters, an interactive graphical analysis, and a final output of the results to the terminal and to a logfile.

If a saturation value is specified then all pixels within the specified measurement radius are checked for saturation. If any saturated pixels are found a warning is given and ignore_sat parameter may be used ot ignore the measurement. If not ignored the object will still be indicated as saturated in the output log. In a focus sequence only the saturated objects are discarded and not the whole sequence.

The input images are specified by an image template list. The list may consist of explicit image names, wildcard templates, and @ files. Identifying the object or objects to be measured may be accomplished in several ways. If a single object near the center of the image is to be measured then the coords parameter takes the value "center". When the "center" option is used the display and imagecur parameters are ignored.

If there are multiple objects or the desired object is not at the center of the frame the object coordinates are entered with the imagecur parameter. This type of coordinate input is selected by specifying either "mark1" or "markall" for the coords parameter. If the value is "mark1" then the coordinates are entered for the first image and the same values are automatically used for subsequent images. If "markall" is specified then the objects in each image are marked.

Normally the imagecur parameter would select the interactive image display cursor though a standard cursor file could be used to make this part noninteractive. When the image display cursor is used either the image must be displayed previously by the user, or the task may be allowed to load the image display using the display task by setting the parameter display to yes and frame to a display frame. If yes the image display must be active. The task will look at the image names as stored in the image display and only load the display if needed.

If one wants to enter a coordinate list rather than use the interactive image cursor the list can consist of just the column and line coordinates since the key will default to m. To finish the list either the end of file may be encountered or a single q may be given since the coordinates are irrelevant. For the "markall" option with multiple images there would need to be a q at the end of each object except possibly the last.

When objects are marked interactively with the image cursor there are a four keys which may be used as shown in the CURSOR COMMAND section. The important distinction is between m to mark and measure an object and g to mark, measure, and graph the results. The former accumulates the results until the end while the latter can give an immediate result to be examined. Unless only one object is marked the g key also accumulates the results for later graphical analysis. It is important to note that the measurements are done as each object is marked so there can be a significant delay before the next object may be marked.

The quantities measured and the algorithms used are described in the ALGORITHMS section. Once all the objects have been measured an interactive (unless only one object is measured) graphical presentation of the measurements is entered.

When the task exits it prints the results to the terminal (STDOUT) and also to the logfile if one is specified. The results may also be previewed during the execution of the task with the ":show" command. The results begin with a banner and the overall estimate of the PSF size. Following this the individual measurements are given. The columns give the image name, the column and line position, the relative magnitude, the PSF size as either the enclosed flux radius or the various FWHM, the ellipticity, and the position angle.

ALGORITHMS

The PSF of an object is characterized using a radially symmetric enclosed flux profile. First the center of the object is determined from an initial rough coordinate. The center is computed from marginal profiles which are sums of lines or columns centered at the initial coordinate and with a width given by the sum of the radius , sbuffer , and swidth parameters. The mean of the marginal profile is determined and then the centroid of the profile above this is computed. The centroids from the two marginal profiles define a new object center. These steps of forming the marginal profiles centered at the estimated object position and then computing the centroids are repeated until the centroids converge or three iterations have been completed.

Next a background is determined from the mode of the pixel values in the sky annulus defined by the object center and radius , sbuffer , and swidth parameters. The pixel values in the annulus are sorted and the mode is estimated as the point of minimum slope in this sorted array using a width of 5% of the number of points. If there are multiple regions with the same minimum slope the lowest pixel value is used.

The background subtracted enclosed flux profile is determined next. To obtain subpixel precision and to give accurate estimates for small widths relative to the pixel sampling, several things are done. First interpolation between pixels is done using a cubic spline surface. The radii measured are in subpixel steps. To accommodate small and large PSF widths (and radius parameters) the steps are nonuniform with very fine steps at small radii (steps of 0.05 pixels in the central pixel) and coarser steps at larger radii (beyond 9 pixels the steps are one pixel) out to the specified radius . Similarly each pixel is subsampled finely near the center and more coarsely at larger distances from the object center. Each subpixel value, as obtained by interpolation, is background subtracted and added into the enclosed flux profile. Even with subpixel sampling there is still a point where a subpixel straddles a particular radius. At those points the fraction of the subpixel dimension in radius falling within the radius being measured is used as the fraction of the pixel value accumulated.

Because of errors in the background determination due to noise and contaminating objects it is sometimes the case that the enclosed flux is not completely monotonic with radius. The enclosed flux normalization, and the magnitude used in plots and reported in results, is the maximum of the enclosed flux profile even if it occurs at a radius less than the maximum radius. It is possible to change the normalization and subtract or add a background correction interactively.

Because a very narrow PSF will produce significant errors in the cubic spline interpolation due to the steepness and rapid variation in the pixel values near the peak, the Gaussian profile with FWHM that encloses the same 80% of the flux is computed as:

FWHM(80%) = 2 * r(80%) * sqrt (ln(2) / (ln (1/.2)))

If this is less than five pixels the Gaussian model is subtracted from the data. The Gaussian normalization is chosed to perfectly subtract the central pixel. The resulting subtraction will not be perfect but the residual data will have much lower amplitudes and variations. A spline interpolation is fit to this residual data and the enclosed flux profile is recomputed in exactly the same manner as previously except the subpixel intensity is evaluated as the sum of the analytic Gaussian and the interpolation to the residual data.

The Gaussian normalization is chosed to perfectly subtract the central pixel. The resulting subtraction will not be perfect but the residual data will have much lower amplitudes and variations. A spline interpolation is fit to this residual data and the enclosed flux profile is recomputed in exactly the same manner as previously except the subpixel intensity is evaluated as the sum of the analytic Gaussian and the interpolation to the residual data. This technique yields accurate FWHM for simulated Gaussian PSFs down to at least a FWHM of 1 pixel.

In addition to the enclosed flux profile, an estimate of the radially symmetric intensity profile is computed from the enclosed flux profile. This is based on the equation

    F(R) = integral from 0 to R { P(r) r dr }

where F(R) is the enclosed flux at radius R and P(r) is the intensity per unit area profile. Thus the derivative of F(R) divided by R gives an estimate of P(R).

Cubic spline interpolation functions are fit to the normalized enclosed flux profile and the intensity profile. These are used to find the radius enclosing any specified fraction of the flux and to find the direct FWHM of the intensity profile. These are output when size is "Radius" or "FWHM" respectively.

In addition to enclosed flux radius and direct FWHM size measurements there are also two size measurements based on fitting analytic profiles. A Gaussian profile and a Moffat profile are fit to the final enclosed flux profile to the points with enclosed flux less than 80%. The limit is included to minimize the effects of poor background values and to make the profile fit be representative of the core of the PSF profile. These profiles are fit whether or not the selected size requires it. This is done for simplicity and to allow quickly changing the size estimate with the ":size" command.

The intensity profile functions (with unit peak) are:

    I(r) = exp (-0.5 * (r/sigma)**2)			Gaussian
    I(r) = (1 + (r/alpha)**2)) ** (-beta)		Moffat

with parameters sigma, alpha, and beta. The normalized enclosed flux profiles, which is what is actually fit, are then:

    F(r) = 1 - exp (-0.5 * (r/sigma)**2)		Gaussian
    F(r) = 1 - (1 + (r/alpha)**2)) ** (1-beta)		Moffat

The fits determine the parameters sigma or alpha and beta (if a beta value is not specified by the users). The reported FWHM values are given by:

    GFWHM = 2 * sigma * sqrt (2 * ln (2))		Gaussian
    MFWHM = 2 * alpha * sqrt (2 ** (1/beta) - 1)	Moffat

were the units are adjusted by the pixel scale factor.

In addition to the four size measurements there are several additional quantities which are determined. Other quantities which are computed are the relative magnitude, ellipticity, and position angle. The magnitude of an individual measurement is obtained from the maximum flux attained in the enclosed flux profile computation. Though the normalization and background may be adjusted interactively later, the magnitude is not changed from the initial determination. The relative magnitude of an object is then computed as

    rel. mag. = -2.5 * log (object flux / maximum star flux)

The maximum star magnitude over all stars is used as the zero point for the relative magnitudes (hence it is possible for an individual object relative magnitude to be less than zero).

The ellipticity and positional angle of an object are derived from the second central intensity weighted moments. The moments are:

	Mxx = sum { (I - B) * x * x } / sum { I - B }
	Myy = sum { (I - B) * y * y } / sum { I - B }
	Mxy = sum { (I - B) * x * y } / sum { I - B }

where x and y are the distances from the object center, I is the pixel intensity and B is the background intensity. The sum is over the same subpixels used in the enclosed flux evaluation with intensities above an isophote which is slightly above the background. The ellipticity and position angles are derived from the moments by the equations:

	M1 = (Mxx - Myy) / (Mxx + Myy)
	M2 = 2 * Mxy / (Mxx + Myy)
	ellip = (M1**2 + M2**2) ** 1/2
	pa = atan (M2 / M1) / 2

where ** is the exponentiation operator and atan is the arc tangent operator. The ellipticity is essentially (a - b) / (a + b) where a is a major axis scale length and b is a minor axis scale length. A value of zero corresponds to a circular image. The position angle is given in degrees counterclockwise from the x or column axis.

The overall size when there are multiple stars is estimated by averaging the individual sizes weighted by the flux of the star as described above. Thus, when there are multiple stars, the brighter stars are given greater weight in the average size. This average size is what is given in the banner for the graphs and in the printed output.

One of the quantities computed for the graphical analysis is the FWHM of a Gaussian or Moffat profile that encloses the same flux as the measured object as a function of the level. The equation are:

   FWHM = 2 * r(level) * sqrt (ln(2.) / ln (1/(1-level)))  Gaussian

   FWHM = 2 * r(level) * sqrt (2**(1/beta)-1) /
	  sqrt ((1-level)**(1/(1-beta))-1)		   Moffat

where r(level) is the radius that encloses "level" fraction of the total flux. ln is the natural logarithm and sqrt is the square root. The beta value is either the user specified value or the value determined by fitting the enclosed flux profile.

This function of level will be a constant if the object profile matches the Gaussian or Moffat profile. Deviations from a constant show the departures from the profile model. The Moffat profile used in making the graphs except for the case where the size is GFWHM.

INTERACTIVE GRAPHICS MODE

The graphics part of psfmeasure consists of a number of different plots selected by cursor keys. The available plots depend on the number of stars. The various plots and the keys which select them are summarized below.

a  Spatial plot
e  Enclosed flux for all stars
m  Size and ellipticity vs relative magnitude
p  Radial profiles for all stars
t  Size and ellipticity vs radius from field center
z  Zoom to a single measurement

If there is only one object the only available plot is the z or zoom plot. This has three graphs; a graph of the normalized enclosed flux verses scaled radius, a graph of the intensity profile verses scaled radius, and equivalent Moffat/Gaussian full width at half maximum verses enclosed flux fraction. The latter two graphs are derived from the normalized enclosed flux profile as described in the ALGORITHMS section. In the graphs the measured points are shown with symbols, a smooth curve is drawn through the symbols and dashed lines indicate the measurement level and enclosed flux radius at that level.

Overplotted on these graphs are the Moffat profile fit or the Gaussian profile fit when size is GFWHM.

The zoom plot is always available from any other plot. The cursor position when the z key is typed selects a particular object measurement. This plot is also the one presented with the g key when marking objects for single exposure images. In that case the graphs are drawn followed by a return to image cursor mode.

There are two types of symbol plots showing the measured PSF size (either enclosed flux radius or FWHM) and ellipticity. These plot the measurements verses relative magnitude (m key) and radius from the field center (t key). These plots are only available when there are multiple stars measured. The magnitude plot is the initial plot in this case. The field center for the field radius graph may be changed interactively using the ":xcenter" and ":ycenter" commands.

Grids of enclosed flux vs. radius, intensity profile vs. radius, and FWHM vs. enclosed flux fraction are shown with the e, p, and g keys respectively when there is more than one star. The grid shows a profile for each star. The profiles in the grid have no axis labels or ticks. Within each box are the coordinates of the object and the PSF size. Below the grid is shown a graph of a single objects including axis labels and ticks.

In the grid there is one profile which is highlighted (by a second box or by a color border). This is the profile shown in the lower graph. To change the star in the lower graph on can type the space bar to advance to the next star or use the cursor and the e, p, or g key again. Other keys will select another plot using the star nearest the cursor to select a measurement.

Any of the graphs with enclosed flux or intensity profiles vs radius may have the profiles of the object with the smallest size overplotted. The overplot has a dashed line, a different color on color graphics devices, and no symbols marking the measurement points. The overplots may be enabled or disabled with the ":overplot" command. Initially it is disabled.

The final plot, the a key, gives a spatial representation. This requires more than one star. This plot has a central graph of column and line coordinates with symbols indicating the position of an object. The objects are marked with a circle (when plotted at unit aspect ratio) whose size is proportional to the measured PSF size. In addition an optional asterisk symbol with size proportional to the relative brightness of the object may be plotted. This symbol is toggled with the s key. On color displays the circles may have two colors, one if object size is above the average best size and the other if the size is below the best size. The purpose of this is to look for a spatial pattern in the PSF sizes.

Adjacent to the central graph are graphs with column or line as one coordinate and radius or ellipticity as the other. The symbols are the same as described previously. These plots can show spatial gradients in the PSF size and shape across the image.

In addition to the keys which select plots there are other keys which do various things. These are summarized below.

?  Page cursor command summary
d  Delete star nearest to cursor
i  Information about point nearest the cursor
n  Normalize enclosed flux at x cursor position
o  Offset enclosed flux by adjusting background
q  Quit
r  Redraw
s  Toggle magnitude symbols in spatial plots
u  Undelete all deleted points
x  Delete nearest point or star (selected by query)
<space> Step through different stars in current plot type

The help, redraw, and quit keys are provide the standard functions. The s and space keys were described previously. The i key locates the nearest object to the cursor in whatever plot is shown and prints one line of information about the object on the graphics device status area.

The d key deletes the star nearest the cursor in whatever plot is currently displayed. To delete all objects from an image, all values for one star (the same as d), or a single measurement, the x key is used. Typing this key produces a query for which type of deletion and the user responds with i, s, or p. Deleted measurements do not appear in any subsequent graphics, are excluded from all computations, and are not output in the results. The u key allows one to recover deleted measurements. This undeletes all previously deleted data.

Due to various sources of error the sky value may be wrong causing the enclosed flux profile to not converge properly but instead decreases beyond some point (overestimated sky) or linearly increases with radius (underestimated sky). This affects the size measurement by raising or lowering the normalization and altering the shape of the enclosed flux profile. The n and o keys allow fudging the enclosed flux profiles. These keys apply only in the zoom plot or e key plot of the enclosed flux profile.

The n key normalizes the enclosed flux profile at the point set by the x position of the cursor. The o key increases or decreases the background estimate to bring curve up or down to the point specified by the cursor. The effect of this is to add or subtract a quadratic function since the number of pixels at a particular radius varies as the square of the radius. To restore the original profile, type n or o at a radius less than zero.

The colon commands, shown below, allow checking or changing parameters initially set by the task parameters, toggling the overplotting of the smallest PSF profiles, and showing the current results. The overplotting option and the contents of the results displayed by :show were described previously.

:beta <val>     Beta value for Moffat profile fits
:level <val>	Level at which the size parameter is evaluated
:overplot <y|n> Overplot the profiles from the narrowest profile?
:radius <val>   Change profile radius
:show <file>	Page all information for the current set of objects
:size <type>	Size type (Radius|FWHM)
:scale <val>	Pixel scale for size values
:xcenter <val>	X field center for radius from field center plots
:ycenter <val>	Y field center for radius from field center plots

The important values which one might want to change interactively are the measurement level and the profile radius. The measurement level directly affects the results reported. When it is changed the sizes of all object PSFs are recomputed and the displayed plots and title information are updated. The profile radius is the maximum radius shown in plots and used to set the enclosed flux normalization. It does not affect the object centering or sky region definition and evaluation which are done when the image data is accessed. Because the objects are not remeasured from the image data the radius may not be made larger than the radius defined by the task parameter though it may be decreased and then increased again.

EXAMPLES

1. An image of a star field is studied with default values.

cl> psfmeasure field1
<The image is displayed and the image cursor activated>
<A number of brighter stars are marked>
<Marking is finished with 'q'>
<Graph of FWHM and ellipticity vs relative magnitude are shown>
<A couple of bad measurements due to blending are deleted>
<Exit with 'q'>
NOAO/IRAF IRAFV2.10.3 valdes@puppis Tue 18:22:36 06-Jul-93
  Average full width at half maximum of 4.5722

       Image  Column    Line     Mag    FWHM   Ellip      PA SAT
      field1   68.96   37.87    0.75   5.636    0.03      15
	      488.41  116.78    1.61   5.376    0.03     -68
	       72.17  156.35    1.47   4.728    0.06     -14
	       33.72  211.86    2.74   4.840    0.05     -52
	      212.80  260.73    2.99   3.888    0.11      83
	      250.51  277.37    1.92   3.914    0.02     -14
	      411.81  292.83    1.93   5.032    0.04      34
	      131.85  301.12    2.67   4.028    0.06       4
	      168.37  413.70    2.20   4.408    0.05      75
	      256.02  255.99    0.00   3.940    0.00     -70

The estimated average FWHM is 4.5722.  The variation in size is real
in this artificial image having a radial variation in PSF.
.ih
SEE ALSO
.nf
imexamine, implot, pprofile, pradprof, radlist, radplt, radprof,
specfocus, starfocus, splot
.endhelp



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