BUGS · SEE_ALSO
rotate -- rotate and shift a list of images
rotate input output rotation
- List of images to be rotated.
- List of output images.
- Angle of rotation of the image in degrees. Positive angles will rotate the image counter-clockwise from the x axis.
- xin = INDEF, yin = INDEF
- The origin of the rotation in pixels. Xin and yin default to the center of the input image.
- xout = INDEF, yout = INDEF
- The origin of the output image. Xout and yout default to the center of the output image.
- ncols = INDEF, nlines = INDEF
- The number of columns and rows in the output image. The default is to keep the dimensions the same as the input image. If ncols and nrows is less then or equal to zero the program will compute the number of columns and rows needed to include the whole image, excluding the effects of any origin shifts.
- interpolant = "linear"
- The interpolant. The options are the following:
- Nearest neighbour.
- Bilinear interpolation in x and y.
- Third order polynomial in x and y.
- Fifth order polynomial in x and y.
- Bicubic spline.
- 2D sinc interpolation. Users can specify the sinc interpolant width by appending a width value to the interpolant string, e.g. sinc51 specifies a 51 by 51 pixel wide sinc interpolant. The sinc width will be rounded up to the nearest odd number. The default sinc width is 31 by 31.
- Look-up table sinc interpolation. Users can specify the look-up table sinc interpolant width by appending a width value to the interpolant string, e.g. lsinc51 specifies a 51 by 51 pixel wide look-up table sinc interpolant. The user supplied sinc width will be rounded up to the nearest odd number. The default sinc width is 31 by 31 pixels. Users can specify the resolution of the lookup table sinc by appending the look-up table size in square brackets to the interpolant string, e.g. lsinc51 specifies a 20 by 20 element sinc look-up table interpolant with a pixel resolution of 0.05 pixels in x and y. The default look-up table size and resolution are 20 by 20 and 0.05 pixels in x and y respectively.
- 2D drizzle resampling. Users can specify the drizzle pixel fraction in x and y by appending a value between 0.0 and 1.0 in square brackets to the interpolant string, e.g. drizzle[0.5]. The default value is 1.0. The value 0.0 is increased internally to 0.001. Drizzle resampling with a pixel fraction of 1.0 in x and y is equivalent to fractional pixel rotated block summing (fluxconserve = yes) or averaging (flux_conserve = no) if xmag and ymag are > 1.0.
- boundary = "nearest"
- The choices are:
- Use the value of the nearest boundary pixel.
- Use a constant value.
- Generate a value by reflecting around the boundary.
- Generate a value by wrapping around to the opposite side of the image.
- constant = 0.
- The value of the constant for constant boundary extension.
- nxblock = 512, nyblock = 512
- If the dimensions of the output image are less than nxblock and nyblock then the entire image is rotated at once. Otherwise nxblock by nyblock segments of the image are rotated.
ROTATE rotates the list of images in input by rotation degrees and writes the output to the images specified by output. The origins of the input and output images may be specified by setting xin, yin, xout and yout. The transformation is described below.
xt = (x - xin) * cos (rotation) - (y - yin) * sin (rotation) + xout yt = (x - xin) * sin (rotation) + (y - yin) * cos (rotation) + yout
The output image gray levels are determined by interpolating in the input image at the positions of the transformed output pixels. ROTATE uses the routines in the 2-D interpolation package.
1. Rotate an image 45 degrees around its center. cl> rotate m51 m51r45 45.0 2. Rotate an image by 45 degrees around (100., 100.) and shift the orgin to (150., 150.0) using bicubic interpolation. cl> rotate m92 m92r45 45.0 xin=100. yin=100. xout=150. yout=150.\ >>> interp=poly3 3. Rotate an image 90 degrees counter-clockwise and clockwise around its center. Note the use of intranspose and image section notation. cl> imtranspose m92[*,-*] m92d90 cl> imtranspose m92[-*,*] m92d270 4. Rotate an image 180 degrees counter-clockwise. Note the use of imcopy and image section notation. cl> imcopy m92[-*,-*] m92d180
It requires approximately 70 and 290 cpu seconds to rotate a 512 by 512 real image using bilinear and biquintic interpolation respectively (Vax 11/750 fpa).
The interpolation operation is done in real arithmetic. However the output type of the pixels is set equal to the input type. This can lead to truncation problems for integer images.
Simple 90, 180, 270 etc degree rotations are best performed using the intranspose task and/or image section notation.