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NAME · USAGE · PARAMETERS · DESCRIPTION · DIURNAL_VELOCITY
BARYCENTRIC_VELOCITY · ANNUAL_VELOCITY · SOLAR_MOTION · ACCURACY
EXAMPLES · REVISIONS · ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS · SEE_ALSO

NAME

rvcorrect -- Compute radial velocity corrections

USAGE

rvcorrect

PARAMETERS

files = ""
List of files containing date, time, coordinates of observation, and possibly an observed radial velocity.
images = ""
List of images containing date, time, coordinates of observation, and possibly an observed radial velocity.
header = yes
Print header for output?
input = no
Print input data in output?
imupdate = no
Update the image header with the computed values of heliocentric correction (in the VHELIO keyword), Heliocentric Julian Date (in the HJD keyword), Local Standard of Rest velocity (in the VLSR keyword), and information describing the solar motion with respect to the desired standard of rest (in the VSUN keyword).

epoch = INDEF
Epoch of observation coordinates in Julian years. If zero or INDEF then the epoch is assumed to be the same as the date of observation.
observatory = ")_.observatory"
Observatory for which corrections are to be computed. The default is a redirection to look in the parameters for the parent package for a value. This may be one of the observatories in the observatory database, "observatory" to select the observatory defined by the environment variable "observatory" or the parameter observatory.observatory , or "obspars" to select the current parameters set in the observatory task. See help for observatory for additional information. If the input consists of images then the observatory is defined by the OBSERVAT keyword if present.
vsun = 20.
Velocity in km/s of the sun relative to the desired standard of rest. The default is for the Local Standard of Rest (LSR).
ra_vsun = 18:00:00
Right ascension in hours of the solar motion relative to the desired standard of rest. The default is for the Local Standard of Rest (LSR).
dec_vsun = 30:00:00
Declination in degrees of the solar motion relative to the desired standard of rest. The default is for the Local Standard of Rest (LSR).
epoch_vsun = 1900.
Epoch in years for the solar motion components.

If no input files or images are specified then the following parameters are used for input.

year, month, day, ut
Date and time of observation. If the year is less than 100 then the century is assumed to be 1900. The month is specified as an integer between 1 and 12. The date of observation is the Greenwich date; i.e. the new day begins at 0 hours universal time. Universal time of observation in hours.
ra , dec
Right ascension (hours) and declination (degrees) of observation.
vobs = 0.
Observed velocity (km/s) to be corrected.
keywpars = ""
The image header keyword translation table as described in the keywpars named pset.

If no input files or images are specified the following parameters are set by the task.

hjd
Helocentric Julian date. The date of observation is corrected for light travel difference to the sun.
vhelio
Heliocentric radial velocity in km/s. The observed velocity is corrected for the rotation of the Earth, the motion of the Earth about the Earth-Moon barycenter, and the orbit of the barycenter about the Sun.
vlsr
Local standard of rest radial velocity in km/s. The heliocentric radial velocity is corrected for the motion of the Sun relative to the specified standard of rest.

DESCRIPTION

The observed radial velocity is corrected for the motion of the observer in the direction of the observation. The components of the observer's motion corrected are those due to the Earth's rotation (diurnal velocity), the motion of the Earth's center about the Earth-Moon barycenter (lunar velocity), the motion of the Earth-Moon barycenter about the center of the Sun (annual velocity), and the motion of the Sun (solar velocity) relative to some specified standard of rest.

The input parameters consist of the date and time of the observation, the direction of observation, the location of the observation, the direction and magnitude of the solar motion relative to some standard of rest, and the observed radial velocity. In all cases years between 0 and 99 are treated as 20th century years. The observatory for the observations defaults to that specified by the environment variable "observatory" if defined or that set for the task observatory . If the input consists of images the observatory is defined by the OBSERVAT image header parameter if present. See ovservatory for additional information. The solar motion defaults to that relative to the galactic local standard of rest (LSR). Note that one can make the local standard of rest velocity be equivalent to the heliocentric velocity by setting the velocity of the solar motion to zero.

The observed velocity, date, time, and direction of observation may be specified in three ways; from files, images, or the task parameters. If a list of files is given then the files are read for the observation parameters. The format of the files is lines containing the year, month (as an integer), day, universal time, right ascension, declination, (optional) coordinate epoch, and (optional) observed radial velocity. If no file list is specified but a list of images is given then the observation parameters are determined from the image header parameters specified through the keywpars parameters. If the observation date includes the time then it is used in preference to universal time keyword. Finally, if no list of files or images is given then the task parameters are used. If no observed radial velocity is given in the file list or found in the image header then a value of zero is assumed. In this case the corrected velocities are interpreted as the corrections to be added to a measured velocity to correct to the desired standard of rest.

The results of the radial velocity calculations are output in three ways. The velocities are always printed on the standard output with an optional header. If the observation parameters are set with the task parameters (no file or image list) then the results are also stored in the parameter file. This mechanism allows the task to be used easily in a script and to obtain greater precision. If the observation parameters are taken from the image headers and the imupdate parameter is set, then the heliocentric Julian day is recorded as HJD, the helocentric velocity as VHELIO, the LSR velocity as VLSR, and the velocity, ra and dec, and epoch of the solar motion used in VLSR is recorded as VSUN.

The printed output may include the input data if desired. This produces two lines per observation, one for the input data and one for the output velocities. The calculated data consists of the helocentric Julian date, the observed velocity, the observed helocentric velocity, and the observed local standard of rest velocity. Following this are component corrections for the diurnal, lunar, annual, and solar velocities.

DIURNAL VELOCITY

The geodetic latitude to geocentric latitude correction is given by

	dlat = -(11. * 60. + 32.743000) * sin (2*lat) +
		1.163300 * sin (4*lat) - 0.002600 * sin (6*lat)

where lat is the geodetic latitude and dlat is the additive correction. The distance, r, of the observer from the Earth's center in meters is given by

	r = 6378160.0 * (0.998327073 + 0.00167643800 * cos(2*lat) -
	    0.00000351 * cos(4*lat) + 0.000000008 * cos(6*lat)) +
	    altitude

where lat is the corrected latitude and altitude is the altitude above sea level. The rotational velocity (perpendicular to the radius vector) in km/s is given by

v = TWOPI * (r / 1000.) / (23.934469591229 * 3600.)

where 23.934469591229 is the siderial day in hours for 1986 and TWOPI is the ratio of the circumference to the radius of a circle. The projection of this velocity along the line of sight is

vdiurnal = v * cos (lat) * cos (dec) * sin (ra-lmst)

where lmst is the local mean sidereal time.

BARYCENTRIC VELOCITY

The orbital elements of the lunar orbit are computed from the following interpolation formulas

	t = (JD - 2415020) / 36525.

	oblq = 23.452294-t*(0.0130125+t*(0.00000164-t*0.000000503))
	omega = 259.183275-t*(1934.142008+t*(0.002078+t*0.000002))
	mlong = 270.434164+t*(481267.88315+t*(-0.001133+t*0.0000019))-
	    omega
	lperi = 334.329556+t*(4069.034029-t*(0.010325+t*0.000012))-
	    omega
	em = 0.054900489
	inclin = 5.1453964

where t is the time from the Julian day 2415020 (~J1900) in Julian centuries, oblq is the mean obliquity of the ecliptic, omega is the longitude of the mean ascending node, mlong is the mean lunar longitude, lperi is the mean lunar longitude of perigee, em is the eccentricity of the lunar orbit, and inclin is the inclination of the orbit to the ecliptic. The true lunar longitude, tlong, is computed from the mean longitude using the correction for the mean anomaly to the true anomaly (radians)

	manom = mlong - lperi
	tanom = manom + (2 * em - 0.25 * em**3) * sin (manom) +
	    1.25 * em**2 * sin (2 * manom) + 13/12 * em**3 *
	    sin (3 * manom)
	tlong = tanom + lperi

The velocity of the Moon around the Earth's center in the plane of the orbit in km/s is

	vmoon = (TWOPI * 384403.12040) / (27.321661 * 86400) /
	    sqrt (1. - em**2)

where 384403.12040 is the mean lunar distance (km) and 27.321661 is the mean lunar month (days). The component along the line to the observation is

v = vmoon * cos (bm) * (sin (tlong-lm) - em*sin (lperi-lm))

where lm and bm are the longitude and latitude of the observation along the lunar orbital plane relative to the ascending node using a standard coordinate transformation. The barycentric velocity is that reduced by the ratio of the Earth's mass to the Moon's mass.

vlunar = v / 81.53

ANNUAL VELOCITY

The orbital elements of the Earth's orbit are computed from the following interpolation formulas

	t = (ast_julday (epoch) - 2415020) / 36525.

	manom = 358.47583+t*(35999.04975-t*(0.000150+t*0.000003))
	oblq = 23.452294-t*(0.0130125+t*(0.00000164-t*0.000000503))
	lperi = 101.22083+t*(1.7191733+t*(0.000453+t*0.000003))
	eccen = 0.01675104-t*(0.00004180+t*0.000000126)

where t is the time from the Julian day 2415020 (~J1900) in Julian centuries, manom is the mean anomaly (degrees), oblq is the mean obliquity of the ecliptic (degrees), lperi is the mean longitude of perihelion (degrees), and eccen is the eccentricy of the orbit. The true anomaly (radians) is obtained from the mean anomaly (radians) by

	tanom = manom + (2 * eccen - 0.25 * eccen**3) * sin (manom) +
	    1.25 * eccen**2 * sin (2 * manom) +
	    13./12. * eccen**3 * sin (3 * manom)

The orbital velocity of the Earth-Moon barycenter perpendicular to the radius vector is given by

	v = ((TWOPI * 149598500.) / (365.2564 * 86400.)) /
	    sqrt (1. - eccen**2)

where the semi-major axis is 149598500 km and the year is 365.2564 days. To compute the projection of this velocity along the line of observation the direction of observation (precessed to the epoch of observation) is converted into ecliptic latitude and longitude, l and b, measured from the point of the ascending node using a standard spherical coordinate transformation. The component is then

vannual = v * cos(b) * (sin(slong-l) - eccen*sin(lperi-l))

where the longitude of the Sun as seen from the Earth, slong, is given by

slong = lperi + tanom + 180

SOLAR MOTION

The solar motion is computed by precessing the coordinates of the solar motion to the observation epoch and taking the appropriate component along the line of sight.

ACCURACY

The calculations are done using IRAF double precision. No correction is made for the perturbation of the other planets. The precession does not include nutation. The interpolation formulas are only approximations. The accuracy of the heliocentric velocity are better than a 0.005 of a kilometer per second. Relative velocities over short intervals are even better.

EXAMPLES

1. For use directly without data files or images there are two common modes. Because of the large number of parameters the parameter values are often set using the task eparam . Then simply execute the command

cl> rvcorrect

2. To set some of the parameters on the command line

cl> rvcorrect ra=12:22:1.116 dec=15:55:16.244 ut=5:30

3. To use a text file generate a file containing the year, month, day, ut, ra, and dec with one observation per line.

cl> type rv.obs
1987 10 21 11:00:24  3:36:15   0:22:04
1987 10 21 11:08:00  8:19:35  -0:51:35
1987 10 21 11:15:47  8:35:12   6:40:29
1987 10 21 12:12:10  9:13:20  61:28:49
1987 10 21 12:16:03  9:27:48   9:07:08
1987 10 21 12:20:43  9:50:45  -6:06:58
1979  3 25 11:22:59 16:07:28 -23:37:49 0 -67.5
cl> rvcorrect f=rv.obs > rv.dat
cl> type rv.dat
##   HJD          VOBS   VHELIO     VLSR   VDIURNAL   VLUNAR  VANNUAL   VSOLAR
2447089.96358     0.00    11.07    -2.74     -0.189    0.008   11.246  -13.808
2447089.96296     0.00    28.05    13.56      0.253    0.010   27.790  -14.498
2447089.96813     0.00    29.04    16.64      0.262    0.011   28.770  -12.401
2447090.00834     0.00    22.06    25.26      0.114    0.010   21.940    3.200
2447090.00884     0.00    27.70    18.55      0.250    0.009   27.438   -9.152
2447090.01129     0.00    23.99    13.50      0.275    0.007   23.704  -10.484
2443957.97716   -67.50   -41.37   -31.48      0.002    0.012   26.117    9.884

4. To use observation parameters from a set of images the command is

cl> rvcorrect images=hz44.001,aboo.001 > rv.dat

5. A CL loop can be used to compute a table in which one parameter varies.

	cl> for (x=0.; x<=12.; x=x+1)
	>>> rvcorrect (ut=x, header=no)

6. To get the total velocity correction in a script the following may be done.

	rvcorrect (vobs=12.3, ra=12:33, dec=30:22, ut=5:30, > "dev$null")
	vlsr = rvcorrect.vlsr

Note that this does not work when the task is run as a background job!

REVISIONS

RVCORRECT V2.11.4
The ut keyword can be in either date plus time or hours.
RVCORRECT V2.11
Y2K update: The date keyword can be in the full format with full year and time. The time takes precedence over a time keyword.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Some of the formulas used were obtained by inspection of the code for the subroutine DOP in the program DOPSET written by R. N. Manchester and M. A. Gordon of NRAO dated January 1970.

SEE ALSO

observatory, asttimes


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