standard -- Add standard stars to sensitivity file
standard input [records] output
Flux = fnuzero * 10. ** (-0.4 * magnitude)
The flux units are also determined by this parameter. However, the frequency to wavelength interval conversion assumes frequency in hertz. The default value is based on a calibration of Vega at 5556 Angstroms of 3.52e-20 ergs/cm2/s/Hz for a magnitude of 0.048. This default value is that used in earlier versions of this task which did not allow the user to change this calibration.
cl> page onedstds$README
The user may copy or create their own calibration files and specify the directory. The directory "" refers to the current working directory. The standard calibration directory for blackbody curves is "onedstds$blackbody/".
The following three queried parameters apply if the selected calibration file is for a blackbody.
The following two parameters are queried if the image does not contain the information.
The following parameter is for the task to make queries.
? Display help page a Add a new band by marking the endpoints d Delete band nearest the cursor in wavelength r Redraw current plot q Quit with current bandpass definitions w Window plot (follow with '?' for help) I Interrupt task immediately :show Show current bandpass data
Observations of standard stars are integrated over calibration bandpasses and written to an output file along with the associated calibration fluxes. The fluxes are obtained from tabulated standard star calibration files or a model flux distribution (currently just a blackbody) based on the magnitude and spectral type of the star. The output data is used by the task sensfunc to determine the detector sensitivity function and possibly the extinction. The spectra are required to be dispersion corrected. The input spectra may be in either "onedspec" or "echelle" format and may have many different observation apertures. The spectra may also be beam switched and use the a record number extension format.
The input spectra are specified by a list of names or root names if using the record number extension format. In the latter case each name in the list has each of the specified record numbers appended. A subset of the input spectra may be selected by their aperture numbers using the parameter apertures . The spectrum name, aperture number, and title are printed to the standard output. The airmass is required but if absent from the image header it may be computed from the observation header parameters and the latitude task parameter (normally obtained from the observatory task). If the airmass cannot be computed, due to missing keywords, then a query is made for the airmass. The airmass is then updated in the header.
The name of the standard star or blackbody curve is obtained by querying the user. If the parameter samestar is yes or beam switch mode is selected then all spectra are assumed to be of the same standard star and the query is made once. If the parameter is no then a query is made for each aperture. This allows each aperture to contain a different standard star. Note however that multiple observations with the same aperture number must be of the same standard star.
The standard star name is either the name of an actual standard star or of a blackbody calibration. The latter generally have a star name consisting of just the standard bandpass identifier. If the standard star name is not recognized a menu of the available standard stars in the calibration directory, the file "standards.men", is printed and then the query is repeated. Thus, to get a list you can type ? or help.
The standard star names must map to a file containing tabulated calibration data. The calibration filename is formed from the star name with blanks, "+", and "-" removed, converted to lower case, and the extension ".dat" added. This name is appended to a calibration directory, so the directory name must have an appropriate directory delimiter such as "$" or "/". Generally one of the system calibration directories is used but one may copy and modify or create new calibration files in a personal directory. For the current working directory the calibration directory is either null or "./".
The calibration files may include comment parameter information consisting of the comment character #, a parameter name, and the parameter value. These elements are separated by whitespace. Any other comment where the first word does not match one of the allowed parameter names is ignored by the program. The parameter names are "type" identifying the type of calibration file, "units" identifying wavelength units, "band" identifying the band for magnitudes, and "weff" identifying the effective wavelength of the band.
There are two types of standard star calibration files as described below.
The calibration files consist of lines with wavelengths, calibration magnitudes, and bandpass widths. The magnitudes are m_AB defined as
m_AB(star) = -2.5 * log10 (f_nu) - 48.60
where f_nu is in erg/cm^2/s/Hz. The m_AB calibration magnitudes are converted to absolute flux per unit frequency using the parameter fnuzero defined by
Fnu = fnuzero * 10. ** (-0.4 * magnitude)
Thus, fnuzero is the flux at m_AB of zero. The flux units are determined by this number. The default value was chosen such that Vega at 5556 Angstroms has a magnitude of 0.048 and a flux of 3.52e-20 ergs/cm2/s/Hz. This is the same value that was used by all previous versions of this task.
The rest of the file consists of lines with wavelengths, m_AB of a zero magnitude star (in that band magnitude system), and the bandpass widths. The m_AB are defined as described previously. Normally all the m_AB values will be the same though it is possible to adjust them to produce a departure from a pure blackbody flux distribution.
The actual m_AB calibration magnitudes for the star are obtained by the relation
m_AB(star) = mag + m_AB(m=0) - 2.5 * log10 (B(weff,teff)/B(w,teff))
where m is the magnitude of the star in the calibration band, m_AB(m=0) is the calibration value in the calibration file representing the magnitude of a m=0 star (basically the m_AB of Vega), weff is the effective wavelength for the calibration file, and teff is the effective temperature of the star. The function B(w,T) is the blackbody function in f_nu that provides the shape of the calibration. Note how the normalization is such that at weff the last term is zero and m_AB(star) = m + m_AB(m=0).
The m_AB(star) computed using the calibration values and the blackbody function are then in the same units and form as for the standard star files. The conversion to f_nu and the remaining processing proceeds in the same way as for standard star calibration data.
The parameters \Imag and teff are specified by the user for each star as described in the section BLACKBODY PARAMETERS. These parameters are queried by the task for each star (unless forced to a value on the command line).
The beam switch mode is selected with the beam_switch parameter. This mode requires that all apertures are of the same star, the header keyword OFLAG be present to identify object and sky spectra, and that the sequence of spectra specified are paired such that if an object spectrum is encountered first the next spectrum for that aperture (spectra from other apertures may appear in between) is a sky spectrum or the reverse. These restrictions are not fundamental but are made so that this mode behaves the same as with the previous version of this task. The sky spectrum is subtracted from the object spectrum and the result is then used in generating the observed intensities in the calibration bandpasses.
If the spectra have been extinction corrected (EX-FLAG = 0) the extinction correction is removed. The specified extinction file is used for this operation and so must be the same as that used when the extinction correction was made. The airmass is also required in this step and, if needed to compute the airmass, the observatory specified in the image or observatory parameter is used. The treatment of extinction in this task is subtle. The aim of this task is to produce observed integrated instrumental intensities without extinction correction. Thus, the extinction correction is removed from extinctionn corrected spectra. However, a correction is made for an extinction gradient across the bandpasses. This is done by applying an extinction correction, integrating across the bandpass, and then correcting the integrated intensity for the extinction at the center of the bandpass. An alternative way to look at this is that the integral is weighted by the ratio of the extinction correction at each pixel to the extinction correction at the center of the bandpass. This correction or weighting is why the extinction file and latitude are parameters in this task even though for nonextinction corrected spectra they appear not to be needed.
The observed instrumental intensities are integrated within a set of bandpasses by summing the pixels using partial pixels at the bandpass edges. Initial bandpasses are defined in one of two ways. A set of evenly spaced bandpasses of constant width covering the range of the input spectrum may be specified using the parameters bandwidth and bandsep in the same units as the spectrum dispersion. If these parameters have the value INDEF then the bandpasses from the calibration file which are entirely within the spectrum are selected. Generally these bandpasses are the actual measured bandpasses though one is free to make calibration files using estimated points. The calibration bandpasses are preferable because they have been directly measured and they have been placed to avoid troubles with spectral lines. However, when the coverage or resolution is such that these bandpasses do not allow a good determination of the instrumental response the evenly spaced bandpasses may be needed. The calibration fluxes are linearly interpolated (or extrapolated) from the calibration data points to the defined bandpasses.
Each spectrum adds a line to the output file containing the spectrum image name, the sky spectrum image name if beam switching, the aperture or beam number, the number of points in the spectrum, the exposure time, airmass, wavelength range, and title. If the airmass is not found in the image header it is computed using the latitude parameter and observation information from the header. If the airmass cannot be computed, due to missing keywords, then a query is made for the airmass.
Following the spectrum information, calibration data is added for each bandpass. The bandpass wavelength, absolute flux (per Angstrom), bandpass width, and observed instrumental intensity in the bandpass are added to the output file. As discussed above, the observed intensity does not include an extinction term but does apply a small correction or weighting for the variation of the extinction across the bandpass.
The setting and editing of the bandpasses may be performed interactively if the interact flag is set. In this case the user is queried for each spectrum. The answers to this query may be "no" or "yes" to skip editing or edit the bandpasses for this spectrum, "NO" or "YES" to skip or not skip editing all spectra of the same aperture with no further queries for this aperture, and "NO!" or "YES!" to skip editing or edit all spectra with no further queries.
When editing the bandpasses a graph of the spectrum is made with the bandpasses plotted at the computed intensity per pixel. The cursor and colon commands available are summarized in the section CURSOR KEYS. Basically bandpasses may be added or deleted and the current bandpass data may be examined. Additional keys allow the usual windowing and cursor mode operations. When satisfied with the bandpasses exit with q. The edited bandpasses for that aperture remain in effect until changed again by the user. Thus if there are many spectra from the same aperture one may reply with "NO" to queries for the next spectra to accept the current bandpasses for all other spectra of the same aperture.
When a blackbody calibration is selected (the calibration file selected by the star_name parameter has "# type blackbody") there are two quantities needed to scale the blackbody to the observation. These are the magnitude of the star in the same band as the observation and the effective temperature. The magnitude is used for the flux scaling and the effective temperature for the shape of the flux distribution. The values are obtained or derived from the user specified parameters mag , magband , and teff . This section describes how the the values are derived from other parameters using the data file "params.dat" in the calibration directory.
The effective temperature in degrees Kelvin may be specified directly or it may be derived from a spectral type for the star. In the latter case the file "params.dat" is searched for the effective temperature. The file consists of lines with the first value being the spectral type and the second the effective temperature. Other columns are described later. The spectral type can be any string without whitespace that matches what is in the file. However, the program finds the last spectral type that matches the first two characters when there is no complete match. This scheme is intended for the case where the spectral types are of the form A0I, A0III, or A0V, where A can be any spectral type letter OBAFGKM, the single digit subtype is between 0 and 9, and the luminousity class is one of I, III, or V. The two character match selects the last spectral type independent of the luminosity class. The standard file "onedstds$blackbody/params.dat" uses these spectral type identifiers with the dwarf class acting as the default.
The magnitude band is specified along with the input magnitude. If the band is the same as the calibration band given in the calibration file then no further transformation is required. However if the magnitude is specified in a different band, a conversion is performed using information from the "params.dat" file based on the spectral type of the star.
When an effective temperature is specified rather and a spectral type then the nearest tabulated temperature for the spectral types that have "V" as the third character is used. For the standard spectral type designations this means that when an effective temperature is specified the dwarf spectral type is used for the magnitude transformation.
As mentioned previously, the "params.dat" data file has additional columns following the spectral type and effective temperature. These columns are relative magnitudes in various bands. The standard file has V magnitudes of zero so in this case the columns are also the X-V colors (where X is the appropriate magnitude). Given the spectral type the relative magnitudes for the calibration band, m_1, and the input magnitude band, m_2, are found and the calibration magnitude for the star is given by
m_calibration = m_input + m_1 - m_2
If one of the magnitudes is missing, given as "INDEF" because the transformation is not available for the spectral type, the last spectral type matching the first two characters which does specify the two magnitudes will be used. For example if there is no information for a B3III star for a M-J color then the spectral type B3V might be used.
In order for the program to determine the bands for each column in the data file there must a a comment before the data with the column names. It must begin with "# Type Teff" and then be followed by the same band identifiers used in the blackbody calibration files and as specified by the magband parameter. Any amount whitespace (space or tab) is used to separate the various fields in the comment and in the fields of the table. For example the file might have the comment
# Type Teff V J H K L Lprime M
identifying the third column of the file as the V magnitude and the ninth file as the M magnitude.
1. To compile observations of three standard stars using a beam switched instrument like the IIDS:
cl> standard.recformat=yes cl> standard nite1 1001-1008 std beam_switch+ interact- [nite1.1001]: HZ 44 - Night 1 [nite1.1004]: HZ 44 - Night 1 [nite1.1005]: HZ 44 - Night 1 [nite1.1008]: HZ 44 - Night 1 Star name in calibration list: hz 44 cl> standard nite1 1009-1016 std beam_switch+ interact- ... cl> standard nite1 1017-1024 std beam_switch+ interact- ...
This will create a file "std" which will contain sensitivity measurements from the beam-switched observations of the three standard stars given. Note that standard is run separately for each standard star.
The spectra will be from the images: nite1.1001, nite.1002 ... nite1.1024, and the default calibration file, "onedstds$irscal.dat" will be used.
2. For echelle spectra all apertures, the orders, are of the same star and so the samestar parameter is set. Usually the resolution is much higher than the calibration data so in order to get sufficient coverage bandpasses must be interpolated from the calibration data. Therefore the evenly spaced bandpasses are used.
cl> standard.recformat=no cl> standard.samestar=yes cl> standard ech001.ec std bandwidth=10 bandsep=15 [ech001.ec]: Feige 110 Star name in calibration list: feige 110 [ech001.ec]: Edit bandpasses? (no|yes|NO|YES|NO!|YES!): yes [ech001.ec]: Edit bandpasses? (no|yes|NO|YES|NO!|YES!): yes [ech001.ec]: Edit bandpasses? (no|yes|NO|YES|NO!|YES!): NO!
3. To use a blackbody infrared calibration where the V magnitude of the star is known.
cl> standard std1.ms std caldir=onedstds$blackbody/ std1.ms(1): Standard Star Star name in calibration list: J Magnitude of star: 10.3 Magnitude type (|V|J|H|K|L|Lprime|M|): V Effective temperature or spectral type: B3III WARNING: Effective temperature for B3III not found - using B3V Blackbody: V = 10.30, J = 10.32, Teff = 19000 std1: Edit bandpasses? (no|yes|NO|YES|NO!|YES!) (yes):
Note the warning message and the confirmation information.
observatory, lcalib, sensfunc