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starfocus noao.obsutil


NAME · USAGE · PARAMETERS · CURSOR_COMMANDS · DESCRIPTION · ALGORITHMS
INTERACTIVE_GRAPHICS_MODE · EXAMPLES · SEE_ALSO

NAME

starfocus -- Measure focus variations using stellar images

USAGE

starfocus images

PARAMETERS

images
List of images. The images may be either taken at a sequence of focus values or be multiple shifted exposures at a sequence of focus settings.
focus = "1x1"
If the parameter fstep is not set (a "" null string) then this parameter is interpreted as either a list of focus values or an image header keyword to one focus value per image. A list may be an explicit list of values, a range specification, or an @ file containing the values. If there is only a single exposure per image then the focus list gives one value per image while if there are multiple exposures per image the list applies to the multiple exposures with the same values reused for other images. If the parameter fstep is given then this parameter is interpreted as a single starting focus value and the focus step defines the increment between subsequent single exposure images or for the various exposures in a multiple exposure image.
fstep = ""
A focus increment value or an image header keyword to the focus increment.

nexposures = "1"
The number of exposures per image specified either as a value or as an image header keyword. A double step gap in a multiple exposure sequence does not count as an exposure.
step = "30."
The step in pixels between exposures specified either as a value or as an image header keyword.
direction = "-line" (-line|+line|-column|+column)
The direction of the exposure sequence in the image. The values are "-line" for successive object images appearing at smaller line numbers, "+line" for objects appearing at larger line numbers, "-column" for objects appearing at smaller column numbers, and "+column" for objects appearing at larger column numbers.
gap = "end" (none|beginning|end)
Location of a double step gap in a sequence with the specified direction. The available cases are "none" for an even sequence with no gap, "beginning" where a double step is taken between the first and the second exposure, and "end" where a double step is taken before the last exposure. Note that "beginning" and "end" are defined in terms of the direction parameter.

coords = "mark1" (center|mark1|markall)
Method by which the coordinates of objects to be measured are specified. If "center" then a single object at the center of each image is measured. If "mark1" then the imagecur parameter, typically the interactive image display cursor, defines the coordinates of one or more objects in the first image ending with a q key value and then the same coordinates are automatically used in subsequent images. If "markall" then the imagecur parameter defines the coordinates for objects in each image ending with a q key value.
wcs = "logical" (logical|physical|world)
Coordinate system for input coordinates. When using image cursor input this will always be "logical". When using cursor input from a file this could be "physical" or "world".
display = yes, frame = 1
Display the image or images as needed? If yes the image display is checked to see if the image is already in one of the display frames. If it is not the display task is called to display the image in the frame specified by the frame parameter. All other display parameters are taken from the current settings of the task. This option requires that the image display be active. A value of no is typically used when an input cursor file is used instead of the image display cursor. An image display need not be active in that case.

level = 0.5
The parameter used to quantify an object image size is the radius from the image center enclosing the fraction of the total flux given by this parameter. If the value is greater than 1 it is treated as a percentage.
size = "FWHM" (Radius|FWHM|GFWHM|MFWHM)
There are four ways the PSF size may be shown in graphs and given in the output. These are:

    Radius - the radius enclosing the specified fraction of the flux
    FWHM   - a direct FWHM from the measured radial profile
    GFWHM  - the FWHM of the best fit Gaussian profile
    MFWHM  - the FWHM of the best fit Moffat profile

The labels in the graphs and output will be the value of this parameter to distinguish the different types of size measurements.

beta = INDEF
For the Moffat profile fit (size = MFWHM) the exponent parameter may be fixed at a specified value or left free to be determined from the fit. The exponent parameter is determined by the fit if beta task parameter is INDEF.
scale = 1.
Pixel scale in user units per pixel. Usually the value is 1 to measure sizes in pixels or the image pixel scale in arc seconds per pixel.
radius = 5., iterations = 2
Measurement radius in pixels and number of iterations on the radius. The enclosed flux profile is measured out to this radius. This radius may be adjusted if the iteration parameter is greater than 1. In that case after each iteration a new radius is computed from the previous FWHM estimate to be the radius the equivalent gaussian enclosing 99.5% of the light. The purpose of this is so that if the initial PSF size of the image need not be known. However, the radius should then be larger than true image size since the iterations best converge to smaller values.
sbuffer = 5, swidth = 5.
Sky buffer and sky width in pixels. The buffer is added to the specified measurement radius to define the inner radius for a circular sky aperture. The sky width is the width of the circular sky aperture.
saturation=INDEF, ignore_sat=no
Data values (prior to sky subtraction) to be considered saturated within measurement radius. A value of INDEF treats all pixels as unsaturated. If a measurement has saturated pixels there are two actions. If ignore_sat =no then a warning is given but the measurement is saved for use. The object will also be indicated as saturated in the output log. If ignore_sat =yes then a warning is given and the object is discarded as if it was not measured. In a focus sequence only the saturated objects are discarded and not the whole sequence.
xcenter = INDEF, ycenter = INDEF
The optical field center of the image given in image pixel coordinates. These values need not lie in the image. If INDEF the center of the image is used. These values are used to make plots of size verse distance from the field center for studies of radial variations.
logfile = "logfile"
File in which to record the final results. If no log file is desired a null string may be specified.

imagecur = ""
Image cursor input for the "mark1" and "markall" options. If null then the image dispaly cursor is used interactively. If a file name is specified then the coordinates come from this file. The format of the file are lines of x, y, id, and key. Values of x an y alone may be used to select objects and the single character q (or the end of the file) may be used to end the list.
graphcur = ""
Graphics cursor input. If null then the standard graphics cursor is used otherwise a standard cursor format file may be specified.

CURSOR COMMANDS

When selecting objects with the image cursor the following commands are available.

?  Page cursor command summary
g  Measure object and graph the results.
m  Measure object.
q  Quit object marking and go to next image.
   At the end of all images go to analysis of all measurements.

:show  Show current results.

When in the interactive graphics the following cursor commands are available. All plots may not be available depending on the number of focus values and the number of stars.

?  Page cursor command summary
a  Spatial plot at a single focus
b  Spatial plot of best focus values
d  Delete star nearest to cursor
e  Enclosed flux for stars at one focus and one star at all focus
f  Size and ellipticity vs focus for all data
i  Information about point nearest the cursor
m  Size and ellipticity vs relative magnitude at one focus
n  Normalize enclosed flux at x cursor position
o  Offset enclosed flux to by adjusting background
p  Radial profiles for stars at one focus and one star at all focus
q  Quit
r  Redraw
s  Toggle magnitude symbols in spatial plots
t  Size and ellipticity vs radius from field center at one focus
u  Undelete all deleted points
x  Delete nearest point, star, or focus (selected by query)
z  Zoom to a single measurement
<space> Step through different focus or stars in current plot type


:beta <val>     Beta parameter for Moffat fit
:level <val>	Level at which the size parameter is evaluated
:overplot <y|n> Overplot the profiles from the narrowest profile?
:radius <val>   Change profile radius
:show <file>	Page all information for the current set of objects
:size <type>	Size type (Radius|FWHM)
:scale <val>	Pixel scale for size values
:xcenter <val>	X field center for radius from field center plots
:ycenter <val>	Y field center for radius from field center plots

The profile radius may not exceed the initial value set by the task
parameter.

DESCRIPTION

This task measures the point-spread function (PSF) width of stars or other unresolved objects in digital images. The width is measured based on the circular radius which encloses a specified fraction of the background subtracted flux. The details of this are described in the ALGORITHMS section. When a sequence of images or multiple exposures in a single image are made with the focus varied the program provides an estimate of the best focus and various views of how the PSF width varies with focus and position in the image. A single star may be measured at each focus or measurements of multiple stars may be made and combined. The task has three stages; selecting objects and measuring the PSF width and other parameters, an interactive graphical analysis, and a final output of the results to the terminal and to a logfile.

If a saturation value is specified then all pixels within the specified measurement radius are checked for saturation. If any saturated pixels are found a warning is given and ignore_sat parameter may be used ot ignore the measurement. If not ignored the object will still be indicated as saturated in the output log. In a focus sequence only the saturated objects are discarded and not the whole sequence.

The input images are specified by an image template list. The list may consist of explicit image names, wildcard templates, and @ files. A "focus" value or values is associated with each image; though this may be any numeric quantity (integer or floating point) and not just a focus. The focus values may be specified in several ways. If each image has a focus value recorded in the image header, the keyword name may be specified. If the images consists of multiple exposures the fstep parameter would specify a second image header keyword (or constant value) giving the focus increment per exposure.

The focus values may also be specified as a range list as described in the help topic ranges . This consists of individual values, ranges of values, a starting value and a step, and a range with a step. The elements of the list are separated by commas, ranges are separated by hyphens, and a step is indicated by the character x. Long range lists, such as a list of individual focus values, may be placed in a file and specified with the @<filename> convention. The assignment of a focus value from a list depends on whether the images are single or multiple exposure as specified by the nexposure parameter. Single exposure images are assigned focus values from the list in the order in which the images and focus values are given. If the images are multiple exposure focus frames in which each offset exposure has a different focus, the focus values from the list are assigned in order to the multiple exposures and if there are multiple images the assignments are repeated.

For a simple sequence of a starting focus value and focus increment, either for multiple single exposure images or multiple exposure images the focus and fstep parameters by be used togther as single values or image header keywords. Note that if fstep is specified then the focus parameter is NOT interpreted as a list.

There are two common ways of doing focus sequences. One is to take an exposure at each focus value. In this case the parameter nexposure is given the value 1. The second is to take an image with multiple exposures where the objects in the image are shifted between exposures and the focus is changed. In this case nexposure is greater than 1 and other parameters are used to specify the shift size and direction. The nexposure parameter may be a number of an image header keyword.

Currently the task allows only multiple exposure shifts along either the column or line dimension and the shifts must be the same between each exposure except that there may be a double shift at either end of the sequence. The shift magnitude, in pixels, is specified as either a number or image header keyword. The shift direction is given by the direction parameter. It is specified relative to the image; i.e. it need not be the same as the physical shifts of the telescope or detector but depends on how the image was created. Steps in which the object positions decrease in column or line are specified with a leading minus and those which increase with a leading plus. The step is specified as a positive number of pixels between exposures. Often a double shift is made at the beginning or end of the sequence. If this is done the gap parameter is used to identify which end the gap is on. Note that one may change the sense of the exposure sequence from that used to make the focus frame by properly adjust the direction, the gap, the focus list, and which object is marked as the start of the sequence.

Identifying the object or objects to be measured may be accomplished in several ways. If a single object near the center of the image is to be measured then the coords parameter takes the value "center". This may be used with multiple exposure focus frames if the first exposure of the object sequence is at the center. When the "center" option is used the display and imagecur parameters are ignored.

If there are multiple objects or the desired object is not at the center of the frame the object coordinates are entered with the imagecur parameter. This type of coordinate input is selected by specifying either "mark1" or "markall" for the coords parameter. If the value is "mark1" then the coordinates are entered for the first image and the same values are automatically used for subsequent images. If "markall" is specified then the objects in each image are marked.

Normally the imagecur parameter would select the interactive image display cursor though a standard cursor file could be used to make this part noninteractive. When the image display cursor is used either the image must be displayed previously by the user, or the task may be allowed to load the image display using the display task by setting the parameter display to yes and frame to a display frame. If yes the image display must be active. The task will look at the image names as stored in the image display and only load the display if needed.

If one wants to enter a coordinate list rather than use the interactive image cursor the list can consist of just the column and line coordinates since the key will default to m. To finish the list either the end of file may be encountered or a single q may be given since the coordinates are irrelevant. For the "markall" option with multiple images there would need to be a q at the end of each object except possibly the last.

When objects are marked interactively with the image cursor there are a four keys which may be used as shown in the CURSOR COMMAND section. The important distinction is between m to mark and measure an object and g to mark, measure, and graph the results. The former accumulates the results until the end while the latter can give an immediate result to be examined. Unless only one object is marked the g key also accumulates the results for later graphical analysis. It is important to note that the measurements are done as each object is marked so there can be a significant delay before the next object may be marked.

The quantities measured and the algorithms used are described in the ALGORITHMS section. Once all the objects have been measured an interactive (unless only one object is measured) graphical presentation of the measurements is entered.

When the task exits it prints the results to the terminal (STDOUT) and also to the logfile if one is specified. The results may also be previewed during the execution of the task with the ":show" command. The results begin with a banner and the overall estimate of the best focus and PSF size. If there are multiple stars measured at multiple focus values the best focus estimate for each star is printed. The star is identified by it's position (the starting position for multiple exposure images). The average size, relative magnitude, and best focus estimate are then given. If there are multiple focus values the average of the PSF size over all objects at each focus are listed next. Finally, the individual measurements are given. The columns give the image name, the column and line position, the relative magnitude, the focus value, the PSF size as either the enclosed flux radius or the FWHM, the ellipticity, the position angle, and an indication of saturation.

ALGORITHMS

The PSF of an object is characterized using a radially symmetric enclosed flux profile. First the center of the object is determined from an initial rough coordinate. The center is computed from marginal profiles which are sums of lines or columns centered at the initial coordinate and with a width given by the sum of the radius , sbuffer , and swidth parameters. The mean of the marginal profile is determined and then the centroid of the profile above this is computed. The centroids from the two marginal profiles define a new object center. These steps of forming the marginal profiles centered at the estimated object position and then computing the centroids are repeated until the centroids converge or three iterations have been completed.

Next a background is determined from the mode of the pixel values in the sky annulus defined by the object center and radius , sbuffer , and swidth parameters. The pixel values in the annulus are sorted and the mode is estimated as the point of minimum slope in this sorted array using a width of 5% of the number of points. If there are multiple regions with the same minimum slope the lowest pixel value is used.

The background subtracted enclosed flux profile is determined next. To obtain subpixel precision and to give accurate estimates for small widths relative to the pixel sampling, several things are done. First interpolation between pixels is done using a cubic spline surface. The radii measured are in subpixel steps. To accommodate small and large PSF widths (and radius parameters) the steps are nonuniform with very fine steps at small radii (steps of 0.05 pixels in the central pixel) and coarser steps at larger radii (beyond 9 pixels the steps are one pixel) out to the specified radius . Similarly each pixel is subsampled finely near the center and more coarsely at larger distances from the object center. Each subpixel value, as obtained by interpolation, is background subtracted and added into the enclosed flux profile. Even with subpixel sampling there is still a point where a subpixel straddles a particular radius. At those points the fraction of the subpixel dimension in radius falling within the radius being measured is used as the fraction of the pixel value accumulated.

Because of errors in the background determination due to noise and contaminating objects it is sometimes the case that the enclosed flux is not completely monotonic with radius. The enclosed flux normalization, and the magnitude used in plots and reported in results, is the maximum of the enclosed flux profile even if it occurs at a radius less than the maximum radius. It is possible to change the normalization and subtract or add a background correction interactively.

Because a very narrow PSF will produce significant errors in the cubic spline interpolation due to the steepness and rapid variation in the pixel values near the peak, the Gaussian profile with FWHM that encloses the same 80% of the flux is computed as:

FWHM(80%) = 2 * r(80%) * sqrt (ln(2) / (ln (1/.2)))

If this is less than five pixels the Gaussian model is subtracted from the data. The Gaussian normalization is chosed to perfectly subtract the central pixel. The resulting subtraction will not be perfect but the residual data will have much lower amplitudes and variations. A spline interpolation is fit to this residual data and the enclosed flux profile is recomputed in exactly the same manner as previously except the subpixel intensity is evaluated as the sum of the analytic Gaussian and the interpolation to the residual data.

The Gaussian normalization is chosed to perfectly subtract the central pixel. The resulting subtraction will not be perfect but the residual data will have much lower amplitudes and variations. A spline interpolation is fit to this residual data and the enclosed flux profile is recomputed in exactly the same manner as previously except the subpixel intensity is evaluated as the sum of the analytic Gaussian and the interpolation to the residual data. This technique yields accurate FWHM for simulated Gaussian PSFs down to at least a FWHM of 1 pixel.

In addition to the enclosed flux profile, an estimate of the radially symmetric intensity profile is computed from the enclosed flux profile. This is based on the equation

    F(R) = integral from 0 to R { P(r) r dr }

where F(R) is the enclosed flux at radius R and P(r) is the intensity per unit area profile. Thus the derivative of F(R) divided by R gives an estimate of P(R).

Cubic spline interpolation functions are fit to the normalized enclosed flux profile and the intensity profile. These are used to find the radius enclosing any specified fraction of the flux and to find the direct FWHM of the intensity profile. These are output when size is "Radius" or "FWHM" respectively.

In addition to enclosed flux radius and direct FWHM size measurements there are also two size measurements based on fitting analytic profiles. A Gaussian profile and a Moffat profile are fit to the final enclosed flux profile to the points with enclosed flux less than 80%. The limit is included to minimize the effects of poor background values and to make the profile fit be representative of the core of the PSF profile. These profiles are fit whether or not the selected size requires it. This is done for simplicity and to allow quickly changing the size estimate with the ":size" command.

The intensity profile functions (with unit peak) are:

    I(r) = exp (-0.5 * (r/sigma)**2)			Gaussian
    I(r) = (1 + (r/alpha)**2)) ** (-beta)		Moffat

with parameters sigma, alpha, and beta. The normalized enclosed flux profiles, which is what is actually fit, are then:

    F(r) = 1 - exp (-0.5 * (r/sigma)**2)		Gaussian
    F(r) = 1 - (1 + (r/alpha)**2)) ** (1-beta)		Moffat

The fits determine the parameters sigma or alpha and beta (if a beta value is not specified by the users). The reported FWHM values are given by:

    GFWHM = 2 * sigma * sqrt (2 * ln (2))		Gaussian
    MFWHM = 2 * alpha * sqrt (2 ** (1/beta) - 1)	Moffat

were the units are adjusted by the pixel scale factor.

In addition to the four size measurements there are several additional quantities which are determined. Other quantities which are computed are the relative magnitude, ellipticity, and position angle. The magnitude of an individual measurement is obtained from the maximum flux attained in the enclosed flux profile computation. Though the normalization and background may be adjusted interactively later, the magnitude is not changed from the initial determination. The relative magnitude of an object is then computed as

    rel. mag. = -2.5 * log (object flux / maximum star flux)

The maximum star magnitude over all stars is used as the zero point for the relative magnitudes (hence it is possible for an individual object relative magnitude to be less than zero).

The ellipticity and positional angle of an object are derived from the second central intensity weighted moments. The moments are:

	Mxx = sum { (I - B) * x * x } / sum { I - B }
	Myy = sum { (I - B) * y * y } / sum { I - B }
	Mxy = sum { (I - B) * x * y } / sum { I - B }

where x and y are the distances from the object center, I is the pixel intensity and B is the background intensity. The sum is over the same subpixels used in the enclosed flux evaluation with intensities above an isophote which is slightly above the background. The ellipticity and position angles are derived from the moments by the equations:

	M1 = (Mxx - Myy) / (Mxx + Myy)
	M2 = 2 * Mxy / (Mxx + Myy)
	ellip = (M1**2 + M2**2) ** 1/2
	pa = atan (M2 / M1) / 2

where ** is the exponentiation operator and atan is the arc tangent operator. The ellipticity is essentially (a - b) / (a + b) where a is a major axis scale length and b is a minor axis scale length. A value of zero corresponds to a circular image. The position angle is given in degrees counterclockwise from the x or column axis.

The overall size when there are multiple stars is estimated by averaging the individual sizes weighted by the flux of the star as described above. Thus, when there are multiple stars, the brighter stars are given greater weight in the average size. This average size is what is given in the banner for the graphs and in the printed output.

One of the quantities computed for the graphical analysis is the FWHM of a Gaussian or Moffat profile that encloses the same flux as the measured object as a function of the level. The equation are:

   FWHM = 2 * r(level) * sqrt (ln(2.) / ln (1/(1-level)))  Gaussian

   FWHM = 2 * r(level) * sqrt (2**(1/beta)-1) /
	  sqrt ((1-level)**(1/(1-beta))-1)		   Moffat

where r(level) is the radius that encloses "level" fraction of the total flux. ln is the natural logarithm and sqrt is the square root. The beta value is either the user specified value or the value determined by fitting the enclosed flux profile.

This function of level will be a constant if the object profile matches the Gaussian or Moffat profile. Deviations from a constant show the departures from the profile model. The Moffat profile used in making the graphs except for the case where the size is GFWHM.

The task estimates a value for the best focus and PSF size at that focus for each star. This is done by finding the minimum size at each focus value (in case there are multiple measurements of the same star at the same focus), sorting them by focus value, finding the focus value with the minimum size, and parabolically interpolating using the nearest focus values on each side. When the minimum size occurs at either extreme of the focus range the best focus is at that extreme focus; in other words there is no extrapolation outside the range of focus values.

The overall best focus and size when there are multiple stars are estimated by averaging the best focus values for each star weighted by the average flux of the star as described above. Thus, when there are multiple stars, the brighter stars are given greater weight in the overall best average focus and size. This best average focus and size are what are given in the banner for the graphs and in the printed output.

The log output also includes an average PSF size for all measurements at a single focus value. This average is also weighted by the average flux of each star at that focus.

INTERACTIVE GRAPHICS MODE

The graphics part of starfocus consists of a number of different plots selected by cursor keys. The available plots depend on the number of stars and the number of focus values. The various plots and the keys which select them are summarized below.

a  Spatial plot at a single focus
b  Spatial plot of best focus values
e  Enclosed flux for stars at one focus and one star at all focus
f  Size and ellipticity vs focus for all data
m  Size and ellipticity vs relative magnitude at one focus
p  Radial profiles for stars at one focus and one star at all focus
t  Size and ellipticity vs radius from field center at one focus
z  Zoom to a single measurement

If there is only one object at a single focus the only available plot is the z or zoom plot. This has three graphs; a graph of the normalized enclosed flux verses scaled radius, a graph of the intensity profile verses scaled radius, and equivalent Moffat/Gaussian full width at half maximum verses enclosed flux fraction. The latter two graphs are derived from the normalized enclosed flux profile as described in the ALGORITHMS section. In the graphs the measured points are shown with symbols, a smooth curve is drawn through the symbols and dashed lines indicate the measurement level and enclosed flux radius at that level.

Overplotted on these graphs are the Moffat profile fit or the Gaussian profile fit when size is GFWHM.

The zoom plot is always available from any other plot. The cursor position when the z key is typed selects a particular object measurement. This plot is also the one presented with the g key when marking objects for single exposure images. In that case the graphs are drawn followed by a return to image cursor mode.

There are three types of symbol plots showing the measured PSF size (either enclosed flux radius or FWHM) and ellipticity. These plot the measurements verses focus (f key), relative magnitude (m key), and radius from the field center (t key). The focus plot includes all measurements and shows dashed lines at the estimated best focus and size. This plot is only available when there are multiple focus values. It is the initial plot in this case for both the g key when there are multiple exposures and when the graphical analysis stage is entered after defining the objects.

The magnitude and field radius plots are only available when there are multiple objects measured. The relative magnitude used for a particular measurement is the average magnitude of the star over all focus values and not the individual object magnitude. The data shown is for a single focus value. The focus value is selected when typing m or t by the focus of the nearest object to the cursor in the preceding plot. When in one of these plots, other focus values may be shown by typing <space>, the space bar. This scrolls through the focus values. The field center for the field radius graph may be changed interactively using the ":xcenter" and ":ycenter" commands.

Grids of enclosed flux vs. radius, intensity profile vs. radius, and FWHM vs. enclosed flux fraction are shown with the e, p, and g keys respectively. If there are multiple objects at multiple focus values there are two grids. One grid is all objects at one focus and the other is one object at all focuses. The titles identify the object (by location) and focus. The profiles in the grids have no axis labels or ticks. Within each box are the coordinates of the object or the focus value, and the PSF size are given. When there is only one object at multiple focus values or multiple objects at only one focus value then there is only one grid and a graph of a one object. The single object graph does have axis labels and ticks.

In the grids there is one profile which is highlighted (by a second box or by a color border). The highlighted profile is the current object. To change the current object, and thus change either the contents of the other grid or the single object graphed, one can type the space bar to advance to the next object or use the cursor and the e, p, or g key again. Other keys will select another plot using the object nearest the cursor to select a focus or object.

Any of the graphs with enclosed flux or intensity profiles vs radius may have the profiles of the object with the smallest size overplotted. The overplot has a dashed line, a different color on color graphics devices, and no symbols marking the measurement points. The overplots may be enabled or disabled with the ":overplot" command. Initially it is disabled.

The final plots give a spatial representation. These require more than one object. The a key gives a spatial plot at a single focus. The space bar can be used to advance to another focus. This plot has a central graph of column and line coordinates with symbols indicating the position of an object. The objects are marked with a circle (when plotted at unit aspect ratio) whose size is proportional to the measured PSF size. In addition an optional asterisk symbol with size proportional to the relative brightness of the object may be plotted. This symbol is toggled with the s key. On color displays the circles may have two colors, one if object size is above the average best size and the other if the size is below the best size. The purpose of this is to look for a spatial pattern in the smallest PSF sizes.

Adjacent to the central graph are graphs with column or line as one coordinate and radius or ellipticity as the other. The symbols are the same as described previously. These plots can show spatial gradients in the PSF size and shape across the image.

The b key gives a spatial plot of the best focus estimates for each object. This requires multiple objects and multiple focus values. As discussed previously, given more than one focus a best focus value and size at the best focus is computed by parabolic interpolation. This plot type shows the object positions in the same way as the a plot except that the radius is the estimated best radius. Instead of adjacent ellipticity plots there are plots of best focus verses columns and lines. Also the two colors in the symbol plots are selected depending on whether the object's best focus estimate is above or below the overall best focus estimate. This allows seeing spatial trends in the best focus.

In addition to the keys which select plots there are other keys which do various things. These are summarized below.

?  Page cursor command summary
d  Delete star nearest to cursor
i  Information about point nearest the cursor
n  Normalize enclosed flux at x cursor position
o  Offset enclosed flux by adjusting background
q  Quit
r  Redraw
s  Toggle magnitude symbols in spatial plots
u  Undelete all deleted points
x  Delete nearest point, star, or focus (selected by query)
<space> Step through different focus or stars in current plot type

The help, redraw, and quit keys are provide the standard functions. The s and space keys were described previously. The i key locates the nearest object to the cursor in whatever plot is shown and prints one line of information about the object on the graphics device status area.

The d key deletes the star nearest the cursor in whatever plot is currently displayed. Deleting a star deletes all measurements of an object at different focus values. To delete all objects from an image, all focus values for one star (the same as d), all objects at one focus, or a single measurement, the x key is used. Typing this key produces a query for which type of deletion and the user responds with i, s, f, or p. The most common use of this is to delete all objects at the extreme focus values. Deleted measurements do not appear in any subsequent graphics, are excluded from all computations, and are not output in the results. The u key allows one to recover deleted measurements. This undeletes all previously deleted data.

Due to various sources of error the sky value may be wrong causing the enclosed flux profile to not converge properly but instead decreases beyond some point (overestimated sky) or linearly increases with radius (underestimated sky). This affects the size measurement by raising or lowering the normalization and altering the shape of the enclosed flux profile. The n and o keys allow fudging the enclosed flux profiles. These keys apply only in the zoom plot of the enclosed flux profile or the case where a single enclosed flux profile is shown with the e key; in other words plots of the enclosed flux which have axes labels.

The n key normalizes the enclosed flux profile at the point set by the x position of the cursor. The o key increases or decreases the background estimate to bring curve up or down to the point specified by the cursor. The effect of this is to add or subtract a quadratic function since the number of pixels at a particular radius varies as the square of the radius. To restore the original profile, type n or o at a radius less than zero.

The colon commands, shown below, allow checking or changing parameters initially set by the task parameters, toggling the overplotting of the smallest PSF profiles, and showing the current results. The overplotting option and the contents of the results displayed by :show were described previously.

:beta <val>     Beta parameter for Moffat fits
:level <val>	Level at which the size parameter is evaluated
:overplot <y|n> Overplot the profiles from the narrowest profile?
:radius <val>   Change profile radius
:show <file>	Page all information for the current set of objects
:size <type>	Size type (Radius|FWHM)
:scale <val>	Pixel scale for size values
:xcenter <val>	X field center for radius from field center plots
:ycenter <val>	Y field center for radius from field center plots

The important values which one might want to change interactively are the measurement level and the profile radius. The measurement level directly affects the results reported. When it is changed the sizes of all object PSFs are recomputed and the displayed plots and title information are updated. The profile radius is the maximum radius shown in plots and used to set the enclosed flux normalization. It does not affect the object centering or sky region definition and evaluation which are done when the image data is accessed. Because the objects are not remeasured from the image data the radius may not be made larger than the radius defined by the task parameter though it may be decreased and then increased again.

EXAMPLES

1. A multiple exposure frame is taken with 7 exposures of a bright star, each exposure shifted by 50 pixels to lower line positions, with a double gap at the end. The exposure pattern is typical of Kitt Peak and the default values for the direction and gap position are applicable. The default focus value numbering and measurements in pixels are also used.

cl> starfocus focus1 nexp=7 step=50
<The image is displayed and the image cursor activated>
<The bright star is marked with 'm'>
<Marking is finished with 'q'>
<A graph of FWHM vs focus index is shown>
<Exit with 'q'>
NOAO/IRAF IRAFV2.10.3 valdes@puppis Wed 16:09:39 30-Jun-93
  Best focus of 4.12073 with FWHM (at 50% level) of 3.04

   Image  Column    Line     Mag   Focus    FWHM   Ellip      PA SAT
  focus1  536.63  804.03    0.07      1.  13.878    0.06     -11
	  535.94  753.28   -0.11      2.   8.579    0.09      89
	  535.38  703.96   -0.08      3.   5.184    0.11     -87
	  537.12  655.36   -0.02      4.   3.066    0.07     -77
	  534.20  604.59    0.00      5.   4.360    0.10      74
	  534.41  554.99   -0.00      6.   9.799    0.09     -35
	  534.83  456.08    0.16      7.  12.579    0.13     -10

The estimated best focus is between the 4th and 5th focus setting and the best focus FWHM is 3.04 pixels.

Note that in more recent Kitt Peak multiple exposure focus images the starting focus value, the focus step, the number of exposures, and the shift are recorded in the image header with the keywords FOCSTART, FOCSTEP, FOCNEXPO, and FOCSHIFT. Thus the task parameters focus , fstep , nexposures , and step may be set to those names. However, rather than use starfocus one would use the more convenient kpnofocus .

SEE ALSO

imexamine, implot, kpnofocus, pprofile, pradprof, psfmeasure, radlist,
radplt, radprof, ranges, specfocus, splot
.endhelp



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